Earth Science Chapter 8: Earthquakes and Earth's Interior

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Terms in this set (23)
P waveearthquake wave that pushes and pulls rocks in the direction of the wave; also known as a compression waveS wavea seismic wave that shakes particles perpendicular to the direction the wave is travellingMoment magnitudea more precise measure of earthquake magnitude than the Richter scale, which is derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault zone and estimates the energy released by an earthquakeLiquefactiona phenomenon, sometimes associated with earthquakes, in which soils and other unconsolidated materials saturated with water are turned into a liquid that is not able to support buildingsTsunamithe Japanese word for a seismic sea wafeSeismic gapan area along a fault where there has not been any earthquake activity for a long period of timeCrustthe thin, rocky outer layer of EarthMantlethe 2890-kilometer-thick layer of Earth located below the crustLithospherethe rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantleAsthenospherea weak plastic layer of the mantle situated below the lithosphere; The rock within this zone is easily deformedOuter corea layer beneath the mantle about 2260 kilometers thick; The outer core contains liquid iron and generates Earth's magnetic fieldInner corethe solid innermost layer of Earth, about 1220 kilometers in radiusMohothe boundary separating the crust from the mantle, discernible by an increase in the velocity of seismic waves

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