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Psychology Test #4
Terms in this set (88)
Changes in face, body, brain
Interpretations of events
Expressions of feelings
General positive or negative states
Shape experience and expression of emotion
A pioneer in the study of emotions and their relation
to facial expressions
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
Facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic emotion being expressed
Sympathetic Nervous System
/Autonomic Nervous System Arousal
Brain directs the release of hormones to allow quick responses to emotional situations when needed
really detect sympathetic nervous system arousal which is activated when most people lie
Not always reliable
Functions of Emotions
Preparing for action
Shaping future behavior
Helping regulate social interaction
Preparing for action
• Link between environmental events and behavioral responses made
• React in an effective way
Shaping future behavior
• Promotes learning of information that will assist in making appropriate responses in the future
• Positive emotional responses act as reinforcement
• Negative emotional responses act as punishments
Helping regulate social interaction
• Lets others know how we feel about something and can understand us better
Looked at cognitive processes involved in the experience of emotion
• How is it that two people can emotionally respond very differently to the same event?
Schachter and Singer experimented with effects of cognitive interpretation of an event and the
How emotions are communicated to others is influenced by a culture's display rules
Situation may require we act out an emotion we do not really feel
Gender Differences in Emotion
Concluded that men and women experience the same amount of emotion, but that women are more likely to express their emotions
Expressed anger is more acceptable by
males than by females
Crying more acceptable by females
A person's reaction to his or her inability to cope with a certain tense event or situation
General Adaption Syndrome
Alarm phase- Hans Selye
body mobilizes the sympathetic nervous system response - boosts energy, muscle tension, blood pressure, heart rate
Resistance phase- Hans Selye
body attempts to resist or cope with stressor - body remains in sympathetic activation making it more vulnerable to other stresses
Exhaustion phase- Hans Selye
persistent stress depletes the body of energy which increases vulnerability to physical problems and illness such as ulcers and heart disease
Negative stress, has the following characteristics:
• Causes anxiety or concern
• Can be short- or long-term
• Is perceived as outside of our coping abilities
• Feels unpleasant
• Decreases performance
• Can lead to mental and physical problems
Positive stress, has the following characteristics:
• Motivates, focuses energy
• Is short-term
• Is perceived as within our coping abilities
• Feels exciting
• Improves performance
Unpredictable large-scale events
• Earthquakes, sharknados, terrorist attacks
Major life changes
Leaving home, getting married, changing jobs, death of a loved one, etc.
- One is more disease-prone following such changes
Losing keys, smoky environment, stuck in traffic, long lines
Hassles can gradually weaken the body's defense system People reporting more hassles had more health problems
Lack of Control
Uncontrollable or unpredictable events are more stressful than those we can predict or control
Events that occur suddenly are more stressful than those we can plan
• Accidents, sudden deaths, getting fired, tornados
Ambiguous situations are more stressful than clear-cut situations
• Can plan a course of action if a situation or problem is clear-
• Harder to plan a course of action if you don't know exactly what to expect or what you need to do
nervous and endocrine systems
fighting disease and infection
- Pituitary gland
- Adrenal cortex
Activation of the hypothalamus during stress causes the pituitary to secrete hormone ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
• ACTH stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol which elevates blood sugar and enhances metabolism
called "stress hormone"
Increases fuel supply for body
• sugar and oxygen
- A generalized sense of confidence about the future
- Characterized by a broad expectancy that outcomes are likely to be positive
- A tendency to stress the negative or unfavorable or to take the gloomiest possible view
- A state of mind in which one anticipates undesirable outcomes or believes that the evil or hardships in life outweigh the good or luxuries
locus of control
where you place the responsibility for events that happen in your life.
Internal locus of control
You place responsibility on yourself and feel that
you have control over events in your life.
External locus of control
You place responsibility on others and feel that events beyond your control influence your life.
- Hard driving, competitive, hostile, perfectionistic
- More likely to develop heart disease
- Mostly related to hostility and time urgency
- relaxed, easy going, not perfectionistic
- pleasant but repressed person, who tends to internalize his or her anger and anxiety and who finds expressing emotions difficult.
A person who seems to thrive on stress
• lacks the anger and hostility of the Type A personality
- Feel in control of their lives - See challenges rather than problems - Sense of commitment to values, beliefs, sense of identity, family and work
- Many risk factors for heart disease including genetics, diet, exercise and general health habits
- Those risk factors only account for about half of diagnosed heart disease
- Stress has been found to be a major factor
High blood pressure
• Genetic predisposition to be more reactive to stress and/or Type A personality can lead to developing hypertension
Situational (external) attribution
Explain behavior based on the situation.
Dispositional (internal) attribution
Explain the behavior based on a quality of the person: personality, attitudes, motivation, ability.
We tend to
- Attribute negative outcomes to the situation or others
- Attribute positive outcomes to ourselves
After making a 96% on the first Psychology exam:
• "I am SOOO good!"
- After making a 54% on the second exam:
• "My roommate is SOOO noisy I could NOT study! That test was SOOO unfair. He didn't talk about ANYTHING that was on the test!"
Correspondent Inference Theory
Theory that the attributions we make about other people's behavior are influenced by a variety of conditions
Are we behaving in ways that is expected and considered desirable by the society we live in
Fundamental Attribution Error
- Overestimate dispositional (internal) causes
- Underestimate situational (external) causes of behavior
Fans leaving football stadium after a win:
"We won! "
• Fans after a loss:
Assumed similarity bias
Attribution bias caused by the assumptions that most people share our own attitudes and behaviors
Illusion of control
The tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events.
• It occurs when someone feels a sense of control over outcomes that they really do not influence.
ABC Model- Attitude
A - Affect or Feeling
- positive or negative feelings about "X"
• B - Behavior
- tendency to act in a certain way towards "X"
• C - Cognitive
- beliefs or facts that you have about "X" • We often think of attitude as only the feelings • Behavior does not always match feelings and beliefs
Attitudes provide a frame of reference that helps us structure and make sense out of the world and our experiences.
Social identification function
Attitudes of others provide us with important information about what they are like, just as the attitudes we express tell others about us.
Social adjustment function
Attitudes we express sometimes allow us to identify with or gain approval from our peers.
A struggle with personal inconsistencies between behavior and feelings or beliefs
Written, spoken, televised or filmed messages that
seek to alter attitudes through "logical" arguments and convincing "facts"
- Message source
- Person delivering message
- What is said
- Target audience
Expertise and trustworthiness
Power to administer rewards and punishments
More attractive, not average, likable, pleasant, similar to the audience
Fear arousing messages
Hellfire and damnation approach
- like TV evangelists
• Describe in graphic detail all the horrible things that will happen to you if you do not comply.
Problems with fear evoking messages
- people tend to repress frightening information
- emotions may arouse a person but not necessarily direct thoughts and behaviors
- may become interested in the problem but not have any solutions
Positive methods work better.
- give facts, ways to solve problems
- stress positive of using a product rather than negatives of not using product
Negative (or positive) evaluations or judgments of members of a group based primarily on characteristics of the group rather than on individual characteristics
Negative behavior towards members of a particular group based on prejudice
Prejudice is based on stereotypes
Geared towards group characteristics
Tendency to hold less favorable opinions about groups of which we are not members (us versus them) and more favorable opinions about our own group membership
See this in college fraternities and sororities
if you are in one it is FAR better than any of the
Social Learning Theory
Prejudice is LEARNED from parents, other adults and peers
Social Identity Theory
Use group membership as a source of pride and self-worth
Best way is to increase contact between groups
- Personal interaction reduces negative stereotyping
- Allows us to understand other group members
Increase awareness of our tendency to stereotype
A change in behavior or attitudes brought about by a desire to follow the beliefs or standards of others
Solomon Asch's study
Subjects had to select (from a group of three) the line that most closely matches the standard line
- all lines are shown to a group of seven people
• Other six were accomplices, and all would select the wrong line about 33% of the time
• In 33% of the trials, the real subject conformed to group pressure
even when the group's answers were obviously incorrect!
Form of social influence in which people alter their behavior in response to direct requests from others, which usually involves a degree of coercion
Get you to say "yes" to small request then ask for something
Make a large unreasonable request, expect it to be refused, then ask for something smaller
Attractive offer made to get compliance and then terms are made less favorable
Offered a deal at an inflated price but also offered incentives, bonuses, discounts
"but wait - there's more!"
Done to get you to reciprocate for getting something free
The norm of reciprocity
Social influence in which we alter our behavior in response to commands or orders from people perceived as having power or authority
Milgram's Obedience Study
Stanley Milgram's obedience studies were conducted at Yale University
in the early 1960s.
• Subjects were told they were participating in a study of the effects of punishment on learning (Deception)
Almost two out of every three participants (65%) continued to obey the experimenter and administered the maximum possible shock of 450 volts.
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