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50 terms

Respiratory/ Circulatory/ Digestive Review

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branchi
the paired ventilatory tubes of a vertebrate that branch into each lung at the lower end of the trachea
alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
branchiole
Derived from tertiary bronchi. Walls made of smooth muscle. Subdivide into alveolar ducts that are derived from respiratory bronchioles.
epiglottis
a flap of cartilage that covers the windpipe while swallowing
larynx
voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
pharynx
the passage to the stomach and lungs
thoracic cavity
the cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heart
diapraghm
a flat muscle that seperates the chest from the abdominal cavity
sinus cavity
(air filled pocket with mucous membrane) - ducts drain into internal nose; help with conditioning of incoming air.
trachea
membranous tube with cartilaginous rings that conveys inhaled air from the larynx to the bronchi
esophagus
muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach
ventral
nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism
dorsal
belonging to or on or near the back or upper surface of an animal or organ or part
pulmonary circuit
carries blood to the lungs for gas exchange and returns it to the heart
systemic circuit
Circuit of blood that carries blood between the heart and the rest of the body.
pericardial membrane
this surrounds and protects the heart
right atrium
The upper right chamber of the heart, where deoxygenated blood is received from the vena cava and then sent to the right ventricle.
left atrium
the left upper chamber of the heart that receives blood from the pulmonary veins
left ventricle
the chamber on the left side of the heart that receives arterial blood from the left atrium and pumps it into the aorta
right ventricle
the chamber on the right side of the heart that receives venous blood from the right atrium and pumps it into the pulmonary trunk
large intestine
the last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body
small intestine
digestive organ in which most chemical digestion takes place
coronary vessels
supply the heart muscle (myocardium) with its blood supply
myocardium
thick middle muscle layer of the heart; pumps blood through the circulatory system
superior vena cava
receives blood from the head and arms and chest and empties into the right atrium of the heart
inferior vena cava
receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart
papillae
small rough elevations on tongue and roof of mouth; contain taste buds
glottis
opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
salivary glands
glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion
teeth
hard bony projections in the jaws for chewing food
tongue
a mobile mass of muscular tissue covered with mucous membrane and located in the oral cavity
soft palate
muscular posterior (back) portion of the palate
hard palate
The hard front portion of the roof of the mouth and floor of the nasal cavity
duodenum
first part of the small intestine
cardiac sphincter
the valve between the distal end of the esophagus and the stomach
pyloric sphincter
ring of muscle that guards the opening between the stomach and the duodenum
stomache
food is churned by muscles here, chemicles like hydrochloric acid and pepsin added and forms a liquid called chyme
jejunum
Middle portion of the small intestine
mesentary
supportive membrane surrounding internal organs and attaching to the body wall
cecum
first part of the large intestine
rectum
A short tube at the end of the large intestine where waste material is compressed into a solid form before being eliminated
anus
opening through which wastes leave the digestive tract
anal sphincter
The valve that controls the release of feces from the recturm. It has an internal part made of smooth muscle (thus involuntary) and an external part made of skeletal muscle (thus voluntary).
smooth muscle
a muscle that contracts involuntary and is found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
skeletal muscle
Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons
liver
organ that makes bile to break down fats; also filters poisons and drugs out of the blood
gall bladder
stores bile produced by the liver until it is needed in the duodenum
bile duct
Tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the intestine.
umbilical vein
A vein in the umbilical cord; brings nutrient blood from the mother to the fetus.
umbilical artery
circulatory; carries waste and deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the mother