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60 terms

Medical Terminology Chapter 7 The Respiratory System

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alveoli
are the very small grape-like clusters found at the end of each bronchiole.
Anoxia
is the absence of oxygen from the body's tissues and organs.
antitussive
is a medication that prevents or relieves coughing.
aphonia
The loss of the ability of the larynx to produce normal speech sounds.
asbestosis
The form of pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos particles in the lungs.
Asphyxia
is the loss of consciousness that occurs when the body cannot get the air it needs to function.
Asthma
is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing.
atelectasis
is a condition in which the lung fails to expand partially or completely because the air passages are blocked.
bradypnea
Abnormally slow rate of respiration; usually less than 10 breaths per minute.
bronchodilator
is a medication that relaxes and expands the bronchial passages into the lungs.
bronchorrhea
Excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi.
bronchoscopy
Visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope.
bronchospasm
a contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles that tighten and squeeze the airway shut
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
is an irregular pattern of breathing characterized by alternating rapid or shallow respiration followed by slower respiration or apnea.
croup
Acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough.
cyanosis
is a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes caused by a lack of adequate oxygen in the blood.
Cystic fibrosis
is a life-threatening genetic disorder in which the lungs and pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus.
diphtheria
An acute bacterial infection of the throat and upper respiratory tract.
Dysphonia
is difficulty in speaking.
dyspnea
Difficult or labored breathing; also known as shortness of breath
Emphysema
is the progressive, long-term loss of lung function that is usually caused by smoking.
empyema
An accumulation of pus, or infected fluid, in the pleural cavity.
endotracheal intubation
The passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish or maintain an open airway.
epistaxis
Bleeding from the nose that is usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders.
hemoptysis
is the coughing up of blood or bloodstained sputum.
hemothorax
Accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity.
hypercapnia
The abnormal buildup of carbon dioxide in the blood.
hyperpnea
Abnormal increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements.
hyperpnea
Abnormal increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements.
Hypoxemia
is a condition of having below normal levels of oxygen in the blood.
hypoxia
is the condition of having below normal oxygen levels in the body's tissues and organs. This condition is less severe than anoxia.
laryngectomy
Surgical removal of the larynx.
laryngitis
Inflammation of the larynx.
laryngoscopy
is the visual examination of the larynx and vocal chords with the use of a laryngoscope.
laryngospasm
is the sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx.
mediastinum
is the middle section of the chest cavity located between the lungs.
nebulizer
is an electric device that pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it into a vapor.
otolaryngologist
is a physician with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the head and neck.
pertussis
A contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract.
pharyngitis
An inflammation of the pharynx.
phlegm
Phlegm is thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages.
pleurisy
is an inflammation of the pleura, which causes pleurodynia.
pleurodynia
is pain in the pleura that occurs when the inflamed membranes rub against each other with each inhalation.
pneumoconiosis
is any fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs and usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact.
pneumonectomy
Surgical removal of all or part of a lung.
pneumonia
is a serious inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli and air passages fill with pus and other liquid.
pneumothorax
Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse.
polysomnography
also known as a sleep study, is a diagnostic test that measures physiological activity during sleep.
pulmonologist
specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the respiratory system.
pulse oximeter
An external monitor to measure the oxygen saturation level in the blood.
pyothorax
An accumulation of pus, or infected fluid, in the pleural cavity.
sinusitis
Inflammation of the sinuses.
sleep apnea
Sleep apnea is a potentially serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts during sleep.
spirometer
is a recording device that measures the amount of air inhaled or exhaled, and the length of time required for each breath.
tachypnea
Abnormally rapid rate of respiration, usually of more than 20 breaths per minute.
thoracentesis
Puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity for diagnostic purposes, to drain pleural effusions, or to reexpand a collapsed lung.
thoracotomy
is a surgical incision into the chest walls to open the pleural cavity for biopsy or treatment.
tracheostomy
is the surgical creation of an opening into the trachea in order to insert a temporary or permanent tube to facilitate breathing.
tracheotomy
is an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway.
tuberculosis
An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosi.