How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

58 terms

Urinary System Structure and Function

STUDY
PLAY
URINARY ORGANS include:
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
URINE: FORMED? FLOWS THROUGH? STORED? ELIMINATED VIA?
in the kidneys and flows through the ureters to the urinary bladder, which stores urine until t is eliminated from the body through the urethra
KIDNEY
bean shaped, retro peritoneal.....either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
kIDNEY: FOUND?
at waist level, between 12th thoracic vertebra and 3rd lumbar
WHAT PASES THROUGH THE RENAL HILUS?
the ureter, renal arteries, veins, nerves lymphatic
RENAL HILUS
the concave surface of each kidney faces the vertebral column and contains a vertical fissure called the renal hilud
HOW IS KIDNEY ATTACHED TO THE ABDONINAL WALL?
renal fascia attaches it
RENAL FASCIA
Outermost layer of the kidney composed of dense irregular tissue; anchors kidney to the back of the body wall
RENAL CAPSULE
a smooth transparent membrane the adheres tightly to the external aspect of the kidney, outside layer. think connective tirruse keeping substances inside.
ADIPOSE CAPSULE
used for padding and protection
3 MAIN REGIONS OF THE KIDNEY
cortex, medulla, sinus
NEPHRONS
structural and function units of the kidney that form urine
URINE DRAINS INTO....?
pappillary ducts that exit through the openings in the renal papilla
RENAL SINUS
a space or cavity that is adjacent to the medulla and extends to the renal hilus
MINOR CALYCES
small cup shaped cavities into which urine first enters. receives from the urine duct
HOW MANY MINOR AND MAJOR CALYCES?
8-18minor and 2-3 major
MAJOR CALYCES
drains into the renal pelvis, which is continuous wiht the ureter
WHAT TRAVELS THROUGH THE RENAL SINUS?
BLOOD VESSELS, LYMPHATIC, AND NERVES...the rest is adipose that fills it
URETERS:SIZE? LOCATED?DIAMETER?
25-30 cm long, behind peritoneum, 1-10mm diameter
HOW IS URINE PROPELLED THROUGH URETERS BY...?
peristalsis, hydrostatic pressure, gravity
URINARY BLADDER
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
URETHRA
duct through which urine is discharged in most mammals and which serves as the male genital duct
DETRUSOR MUSCLE
formed by 3 layer of muscles contracts and compress urinary bladder to expel urine into urethra
RUGAE
Ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
TRIGONE
inferior surface of urinary bladder contains 3 openings that form the trigonre
URETERAL OPENINGS
2 posterior openings
INTERNAL URETHRAL ORIFICE
anterior opening to the urethra
URINARY BLADDER: MALE VS WOMAN: LOCATION
males: bladdar is anterior to the rectum and posteror to the pubic symphysis. in females:urinary bladdar is anterior to the vagina, inferior to the uterus and posterior to the pubic symthesis
URETHRA
carries urine from the internal urethral oriffice to the external urethral oriffice
INTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
located at the neck of the urinary bladder, these smooth muscle fibers provide involuntary control over the discharge of urine from the bladder
EXTERNAL URETHRAL SPHINCTER
sphincter muscle or valve that is more inferiorly located on the bladder. helps to control the outflow of urine from the bladder. This sphincter is voluntarily controlled
MICTURITION
detrusor muscle contracts and forces urine out of the urinary bladder, and the internl and external urethral sphincters relax to allow passage of urine.
FEMALE URETHRAL LENGTH
4cm
MALE URETHRAL LENGTH
15-20 cm
MALE URETHRA: REGIONS?
prostatic urethra, membranous urethra, spongy (penile) urethra
NEPHRON
1 million nephrons in kidney filter blood from urine. it contains a RENAL CORPUS FILTRATE that filter blood and a RENAL TUBULE that modifies the filtrate o form urine
RENAL CORPUSCLE: LOCATED? CONSISTS OF?
located in the renal cortex. consists of glomerulus and a glomerular capsule, a cup shaped epithelial membrane surrounding the glomerulus
CAPSULAR SPACE/GLOMERULAR CAVITY
blood is foltered into here. it is not called FILTRATE and it drains into the renal tubule
RENAL TUBULE: 3 STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL SECTIONS
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, distal convoluted tubule
URINE:DEFINITION
distal convoluted tubules from several nephrons drain the liquid (now called urine) into COLLECTING DUCTS that descend through the renal pyraids and mrege to form larger PAPILLARY DUCTS
AFFERENT ARTERIOLE
delivers systemic blood to the glomerulus
EFFERENT ARTERIOLE
smaller in diameter. receives blood from the glomerulus. delivers blood to a second capillary bed, the PERITUBULAR CAPILLARY NETWORK that entwines the renal tubule
2 TYPES OF NEPHRONS
CORTICAL NEPHRON (short loops of Henle that descend slightly into the medulla) JUXTAMEDULLARY NEPHRON (long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medulla)
VASA RECTA
long capillary loops that extend from the efferent arteriole
KIDNEY: GLOMERULAR (BOWMANS) CAPSULE: COMPOSED OF?
visceral and parietal epithelial layer. both are simple squamous epithelium
KIDNEY: VISCERAL LAYER:CONTAINS?
forms part of the filtration membrane, is adjacent to the glomerulus. contains podocytes (foot like projections of simple squamous epithelium)
KIDNEY: PARIETAL LAYER
forms a funnel-like structure that collects the filtrate within the capsular space.
URETERS: COMPOSED OF3 LAYERS?
MUCOSA that lines the lumen, MUSCULARIS a msucular layer, OUTER ADVENTITIAL LAYER
MUCOSA: CONTAINS?
contains Transitional epithelium that can distend to accommodate urine, and a n underlying lamina propria of areolar connective tissue
MUSCULARIS: CONTAINS WHAT KIND OF MUSCLE?
smooth muscle
PERISTALSIS: FUNCTION
the function of the muscularis layer, moves urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder
ADVENTITIA: FUNCTION
secures the ureters in place
EPITHELIUM OF MUCOSA IS?
trnsitional epithelium
T or F: urinary bladder contains same layers as the ureter
TRUE
EPUTHELIUM OF MUSCULARIS?
smooth muscle
T OR F: contraction of the muscularis layer forces urine out of the urinary bladder
TRUE
T OR F: the urethra consists of a mucosa surrounded by a muscularis layer of circular smooth muscle
TRUE
CHANGES IN EPITHELIUM ALONG THE COURSE OF THE URETHRA
near urinary bladder: transitional, distally: becomes stratified columnar or pseudo stratified columnar, near the external urethral orifice: stratified squamous epithelium