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Abeka Chemistry Chapter 16 & 17
Terms in this set (56)
Any process in which an atom loses one or more electrons.
Any process in which an atom gains one or more electrons.
Causes oxidation by accepting electrons from the other reactant
Causes reduction by giving up electrons for the other reactant to accept
The charge the atom is assumed to have in a particular ion or compound.
Rule 1 of Oxidation Numbers
The oxidation number of any element in its uncombined state is zero.
Rule 2 of Oxidation Numbers
The oxidation number of a monatomic (one-atom) ion is equal to its charge.
Rule 3 of Oxidation Numbers
Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1 in most of its compounds, except hydrides.
Rule 4 of Oxidation Numbers
Oxygen is assigned an oxidation number of -2 in most of its compounds.
Rule 5 of Oxidation Numbers
Halogens in their compounds are assigned an oxidation number of -1 unless they are bonded to a more electronegative halogen or to oxygen.
Rule 6 of Oxidation Numbers
Alkali metals (group 1), alkaline earth metals (group 2), and aluminum (group 13) in their compounds have positive oxidation numbers equal to the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom.
Rule 7 of Oxidation Numbers
The algebraic sum of the oxidation numbers of all he atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion must equal th e charge on that particle.
The flow of electric charge.
Reactions that involve an electric current.
The process of passing an electric current through an electrolyte to cause a nonspontaneous redox reaction.
Only half of an overall reaction
Electrolytic cells used to form a thin coating of metal on an object
Devices that convert the chemical potential energy of spontaneous redox chemical reaction into electric energy.
A tube filled with a nonreactive electrolyte.
The electrochemical deterioration of metals.
Standard Electrode Potential (SEP)
The study of reactions involving the nucleus.
Shows no tendency to break up or suddenly change into other elements
Have a tendency to spontaneously shed subatomic particles or otherwise break apart.
Both the particles and electromagnetic waves produced by a nuclear reaction; they "radiate" from the nucleus.
The phenomenon of energy release from certain elements and isotopes.
Tendency to undergo nuclear decay and thereby emit nuclear radiation.
A specific type of atom described by both its atomic number and mass number, any isotope of any element.
Strong Nuclear Force
Acts on protons and neutrons; binds together in stable units.
The conversion of one nucleic into another in a spontaneous nuclear reaction.
Nuclear Mass Defect
The mass of every atom is measurably less than the total mass of its individual particles.
Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
Matter and energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
Nuclear Binding Energy
The amount of energy necessary to break up a nucleus into its components nucleons.
Kinetic energy gained by an electron when it is accelerated through 1 V of electrical potential.
An unstable atom ejects a clump of two protons and two neutrons.
When a neutron in an atoms nucleus changes into a proton and emits an electron.
Electromagnetic waves of very high frequency and energy.
Causes neutrons to be ejected from the nucleus.
The decay rate of a substance; or the length of time it takes for 1/2 of the original substance to decay into the new substance.
One nuclear disintegration per second
An older unit of the becquerel.
Radioactive Decay Series
A long series of radioactive nuclides ending in nonradioactive nuclide.
Nuclear reactions induced by a sample with other particles
Use magnetic and electric fields to accelerate charged particles to energies of several million electron volts.
Any radiation capable of causing ionization
Amount of radiation that causes an exposed object to absorb 0.01 J of energy per kilogram of mass.
Takes into account the effects of different types of radiation on living things.
The splitting an atom
The sufficient amount of density
A device for safely initiating and controlling a fission chain reaction.
To make a critical mass possible to achieve.
Loss Of Coolant Accident
A pip rupture, pump failure, or other breakdown deprives the core of coolant, possibly causing the core to over heat
Nuclear fuel recycling
Produces more fissionable fuel than it uses.
The binding energy per nucleon can be increased by combining light nuclei into heavier ones.
High temperature nuclear reaction
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