(Bottom of the pyramid and up)
Physiological needs: hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs.
Safety needs: security and protection from physical and emotional harm.
Social needs: that include affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.
Esteem needs: internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement, and external esteem factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
Self-actualization needs: drive to become what one is capable of becoming, and includes growth, achieving one's potential, and self-fulfillment
Stage 1: Potential Opposition of Incompatibility
Communication, Structure, Personal Variables
-communication as a source of conflict represents those opposing forces that arise from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and "noise" in the communication channels. Conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place
Stage 2: Cognition and Personalization:
Perceived Conflict, Felt Conflict
-important for two reasons: because it's where conflict issues tend to be defined, where the parties decide what the conflict is about; and because emotions play a major role in shaping perceptions and therefore our reactions to the conflict.
Stage 3: Intentions
Five conflict-handling intentions can be identified: Competing, Collaborating, Compromising, Avoiding, Accommodating
-to act in a given way that intervene between people's perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior.
Stage 4: Behavior
Overt conflict- Party's behavior, Others reaction
-includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties. These conflict behaviors are usually overt attempts to implement each party's intentions
Increased group performance, Decreased group performance
Conflict is constructive when it:
Improves the quality of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, encourages interest and curiosity, provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released, and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change.
Conflict is destructive when it breeds discontent, reduces group effectiveness, and threatens the group's survival.
Formal Power-based on an individual's position in an organization
Coercive Power-depends on fear of negative result, , A has coercive power over B if A can dismiss, suspend, or demote B, assuming that B values his or her job. Similarly, if A can assign B work activities that B finds unpleasant or treat B in a manner that B finds embarrassing, A possesses coercive power over B
Reward Power-People comply because doing so produces positive benefits; therefore, one who can distribute rewards that others view as valuable will have power over those others
Legitimate Power-is shown in formal groups and organizations through one's structural position. It represents the power a person receives as a result of his or her position in the formal hierarchy
Personal Power-comes from an individual's unique characteristics
Expert Power-is influence wielded as a result of expertise, special skill, or knowledge
Referent Power-power's source is identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I admire and identify with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.