Oceanography Test 2 Study Guide 3

Are abyssal plains more extensive on the floor of the Atlantic or of the Pacific?
What current is sediment-laden and flows off of the continental shelf?
Turbidity Current
What are submarine canyons?
A steep, V shaped canyon cut into the continental shelf or slope
Do hydrothermal vents have a significant impact on ocean chemistry?
Yes. Vents discharge hydrogen sulfide gas.
What do the two relatively flat areas on the hypsographic curve represent?
various intro plate elevations on land and underwater
What method is most frequently used to investigate sediment and rock layers of the sea floor?
Multi beam echo sounding and side scan sonar
What are the characteristics of passive continental margins?
lack major tectonic activity
What are the characteristics of an active continental margin?
they are marked by a high degree of tectonic activity since it is associated within the interior of lithospheric plates and thus no in close proximity to any plate boudary
Give the correct order of marine provinces from the coast out to the mid-ocean ridge
1. continental margins, 2. deep ocean basins, 3. mid-ocean ridge
What is the continental slope?
A relatively steeply sloping surface lying seaward of the continental shelf. It is where the deep ocean basin begins.
What is the continental shelf?
A gently sloping depositional surface extending from the low water line to the depth of a marked increase in slope around the margin of a continent or island.
How did submarine canyons form?
Created on the continental slop by some marine process and enlarge into the continental shelf through time.
Where are the steepest slopes in the ocean found?
The Pacific Ocean
What is an abyssal plain?
A flat depositional surface extending seaward from the continental rise or oceanic trenches.
Where is old lithosphere destroyed?
Subduction zones
Why are abyssal hills more common in the Pacific Ocean than other ocean basins?
The abundance of active margins made the rate of sediment deposit lower.
Where does the new lithosphere form in the ocean?
mid-ocean ridges
What are "white smokers?"
Water temperature from 30-350 degrees Celsius emit water that is white,because of the presence of various light-colored compounds, including barium sulfide, through the hydrothermal vent.
Describe the direction of motion along a seafloor transform fault.
Across a transform fault, two lithospheric plates are moving in opposite directions. They are actual plate boundaries.
Are transform faults perpendicular or parallel to the aces of mid-ocean ridges?
According to the video "Noah's Ark," how long ago did the Black Sea change from a fresh water lake to an inland sea?
7540 years
Where did the Mediterranean Sea water enter the Black Sea?
The Strait of Gibraltar
Was Pitman's estimated flow velocity through the Bosphorus during the flood greater than or less than Niagara Falls?
What type of equipment was used in the 1993 expedition to examine the sub-seaded structure of the Black Sea?
Post Iron Cruise to drill core samples