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IHUM 201 Final
Terms in this set (199)
What is scholasticism?
a methodology and philosophy that involved logic, questioning, and debate
What does Aquinas argue regarding whether people can be happy in this life?
People can have an imperfect kind of happiness, but true and perfect happiness cannot be obtained in this life.
Which is true about women's education in the Middle Ages?
Women's education was typically carried out by private tutors or in convents.
To whom is the Summa Theologica dedicated
the Virgin Mary
What is one of the objections that Aquinas mentions against God's existence?
The natural world could be accounted for in other ways without God.
When he is setting up the problem of whether God exists, who does Aquinas quote in support of God's existence?
Which of the early universities enjoyed the greatest reputation?
What is true about Peter Abelard?
He was placed on trial for heresy by Bernard of Clairvaux.
What is one of the ways that Abelard proposed that apparent contradictions could be resolved?
An author's later writings may clarify and correct the earlier statement.
What is true about Heloise?
She was renowned for her learning in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew.
Does Aquinas think that human beings can become happy through their own natural powers?
People cannot obtain perfect happiness through their own natural powers.
How does Aquinas respond to the argument that God does not exist because evil exists?
Evil exists for a good purpose.
What was a reason for the rise of universities?
the growing power of central governments
Who wrote the Summa Theologica?
What is dialectic?
debating two sides of a question in order to find the truth
What is the goal of the Summa Theologica?
to harmonize human reason and God's revealed truth as contained in the scriptures
What was the goal of Sic et Non?
to discover truth and sharpen the wits of the students who used the book
Who is the author of Sic et Non?
What does Aquinas say regarding whether or not good works are required for people to be happy?
Good works are required for people to be happy.
What is one of the reasons that Aquinas cites in order to prove God's existence?
Things are in motion, so something must have originally set them in motion.
What dramatic event in 1348 greatly reduced the population of Europe?
the bubonic plague
What musical qualities distinguished Ars Nova from the music of the previous era?
rhythmic and melodic complexity
How was the plague spread to Europe?
via rats aboard trade ships
What building is the city hall of Venice?
the Doges' Palace
What is isorhythm?
a repeated melody and rhythmic structure in a polyphonic musical piece
Where was the residence of the Papacy from 1309 to 1367?
Which is true regarding Giotto?
His art features an increased attention to emotion.
What style is exemplified by Simone Martin's Annunciation?
the International style
After the return of the papacy to Rome, what name was given to the split (1378-1417) in the Roman Catholic Church?
the Great Schism
Which Italian sculptors (father and son) demonstrate Roman and northern Gothic influences in their work?
Nicola and Giovanni Pisano
often included a high, flattened apse of stained glass.
What Italian author used the events of 1348 as a backdrop for his work, the Decameron?
What was the subject of Giotto's painting of the Lamentation?
the body of Christ surrounded by the disciples
With which artist did author Giorgio Vasari begin his work on the painters leading to the Renaissance?
Which is not part of the ordinary of the Mass?
Guillaume de Machaut
What is true regarding the overarching results of the major events of the 14th century?
a strengthened sense of nationalism
Which two European countries were the main combatants in the Hundred Years' War?
France and England
International style in painting
was characterized by lavish color and intricate decoration.
Which is true regarding Ars Nova?
It used richer harmonies.
What is at the final section of Purgatory?
the Garden of Eden
Who does the poet encounter in the circle of the Simonists, those who sell Church positions?
the previous pope
How are the traitors punished?
They are stuck in a frozen lake.
Where is the narrator at the beginning of The Divine Comedy?
lost in a dark forest
What is true regarding Dante's depiction of Satan?
He is an unspeaking, hairy beast.
The Divine Comedy is written in which poetic form?
Which of the following is not one of the individuals being punished directly by Satan?
What is true regarding punishment in Purgatory?
It is meant to teach a virtue.
Who is the poet's guide through the Inferno?
What symbol of correction does the poet wear during his trip through Purgatory?
Dante was originally from
Why is the poet unable to climb to the top of the hill at the beginning of The Divine Comedy?
Three wild animals block his path.
Who is the poet's guide through heaven?
What is true regarding the poet's final vision of the Trinity?
He sees three circles of light that share the same circumference.
The structure of the Inferno follows the philosophy of
How is Purgatory organized?
seven ascending terraces corresponding to the seven deadly sins
How are the adulterers punished in the Inferno?
They are blown around in a fiery whirlwind.
In which circle does Dante encounter Paolo and Francesca?
Dante's former love is named
What is the worst sin punished in the Inferno?
treason or treachery
Although the main point of the tale is something different, the pardoner also takes the chance to preach against
The other two rogues
die after killing the youngest.
What is the monk in the prologue like?
He liked to hunt and be active.
What is the pardoner like?
He is greedy and a hypocrite.
Upon entering the neighboring village, the rogues find an old man who
wants to die but cannot.
When the pardoner offers to let his fellow travelers kiss the relics
the host insults him.
At what time of year are the pilgrims heading to Canterbury?
The three rogues swear an oath to kill
The pardoner says that even though he is an evil man, he can
tell a moral tale.
Which best describes the character of the knight?
He is noble, valiant, and gentle.
What does the youngest rogue decide to do as he returns to town?
poison his two associates
What is the theme of the pardoner's preaching?
Avarice is the root of all evil.
Which of the following is true regarding the clerk (or student) from Oxford?
He spends all his money on books.
The Canterbury Tales are written in
What is the parson like?
He is a sincere and holy man.
What do the rogues find under the tree?
What was Chaucer's job?
customs agent at London
What shall the best storyteller win?
Who proposes the story-telling pastime and contest?
the host, the owner of the inn
The wife from Bath
has been married five times.
In the 189th poem, Petrarch compares his experience with love to
a stormy voyage at sea.
The majority of the poems in the Rime Sparse are about
Petrarch's love for Laura.
Petrarch regarded as his most important works
his poetry in Latin.
Which poetic form was Petrarch largely responsible for popularizing?
What is Petrarch describing in the 3rd poem in his collection?
the moment when he saw and fell in love with Laura
What is Pico della Mirandola's opinion about human freedom?
Human beings are free to elevate or debase themselves through their choices.
Petrarch's family moved from Italy to Avignon, France, because
the pope was now living there.
How does Petrarch describe love in his 61st poem?
He uses a series of paradoxes, such as sweet agony.
What Classical reference appears in the 78th poem?
Pygmalion, the sculptor whose statue was brought to life by Venus
In the 190th poem, Petrarch's love interest is symbolically represented as
In the 333rd poem, what is Petrarch's "precious treasure in the earth?"
Laura's dead body
Which of the following is a characteristic of humanism?
the celebration of an individual's personal experiences and feelings
What theme does the 62nd poem express?
Petrarch would like to repent and turn back to God.
In Pico della Mirandola's Oration on the Dignity of Man, what does God tell Adam?
that Adam can be whatever he chooses to be
On what day is the 62nd poem set?
Which is true regarding Petrarch's professional life?
He mainly refused permanent positions so that he could travel and work as he pleased.
In the 3rd poem, what is unusual about the time when these events take place?
Petrarch falls in love on a very religious day.
What is Petrarch's "Letter to Posterity?"
an autobiography left unfinished at Petrarch's death
What does the final line of the 90th poem mean?
Even though Love's arrow struck him a long time ago, Petrarch still feels the wound.
Which is true regarding Laura?
She died of the Black Plague.
Masaccio's fresco The Holy Trinity demonstrates a use of
A cantus firmus mass is
a cyclical mass where all the movements are based on a single Gregorian chant.
What Florentine banker founded an academy for the study of Plato?
Cosimo de' Medici
Which city was the most important center of the early Italian Renaissance?
Which artist wrote the first theoretical treatise about creating perspective in art?
Piero della Francesca
Which of the following was not an early Renaissance painter in Florence?
Botticelli's Birth of Venus demonstrates
a Neo-Platonic interest in ideal beauty.
The subject matter for the competition to design the Florence baptistery doors was
the sacrifice of Isaac.
Which of the following was not designed by Brunelleschi?
Who was the most famous composer of the fifteenth century?
What was innovative about Donatello's portrayal of David?
He combined a classical form with a Christian subject.
What was the primary source of the Medici family's wealth?
What famous painting of Sandro Botticelli celebrates the spring?
Which Dominican monk preached against Florentine art and culture?
What was Brunelleschi's contribution to the Florence Cathedral?
He designed the dome.
What two innovations were made to European music during this period?
the secularization of the motet and the use of folk tunes in settings of the mass
What name did Michelangelo give to East Doors of the Florence Baptistery?
the Gates of Paradise
What is a chanson?
a popular song
Who were the two most famous competitors in the 1401 competition for the decoration of the doors of the Florence Baptistery?
Brunelleschi and Ghiberti
Who was the greatest Florentine sculptor of the first half of the 1400s?
Which is true about Palestrina's music?
It demonstrates a conservatism tied to the Catholic response to Protestantism.
Which Pope commissioned Bramante in 1506 to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica?
Pope Julius II
In The Creation of Adam, why is the finger of God reaching out to man?
to bring him to life
Leonardo's intellectual interests, as evidenced by his notebooks, did not include
In the Sistine Chapel, what are the subjects of the famous ceiling frescoes?
scenes and figures from the Bible
How was the final form of Saint Peter's Basilica altered from Michelangelo's plan?
An extensive portico was added and the nave extended.
A paraphrase mass is
a mass that borrows a melody and uses it in all the polyphonic voices.
How did Raphael arrange the figures in Madonna of the Meadow?
in a pyramidal arrangement
Which Renaissance sculptor is associated with the belief that his role was to carve away the excess in a block of marble to liberate the figure within?
was carved out of an enormous piece of abandoned marble.
What is sfumato?
the hazy, smoke-like effect in Leonardo's paintings
The sitter for the portrait known as Mona Lisa is
the wife of a Florentine merchant.
Text depiction or word painting is
matching musical effects with the individual words being sung.
Which is true regarding Raphael's School of Athens?
It includes a self-portrait of the artist.
Which is true about Josquin des Prez?
He demonstrated a careful attention to the relation between words and music.
Which is true regarding Michelangelo's Last Judgment?
It represents a move away from humanism.
What moment is portrayed in Leonardo's Last Supper?
when Jesus announces that one of the disciples will betray him
Which city is most associated with the High Renaissance in Italy?
In Raphael's School of Athens who are the two philosophers in the center?
Plato and Aristotle
An imitation mass is
a mass that borrows musical material from a polyphonic source.
Machiavelli's published works include
In addition to a river, Machiavelli compares Fortune to
Machiavelli writes that rulers should be generous
with other people's money.
The Prince is dedicated to
Lorenzo de' Medici.
What is Machiavelli's goal in the final chapter?
encourage a powerful leader to unite Italy and expel foreign armies
Why are rulers who wish to do so always able to deceive, according to Machiavelli?
People are generally stupid.
Cesar Borgia (Duke Valentino), one of Machiavelli's favorite examples, was the son of
Pope Alexander VI.
Regarding vices and virtues, Machiavelli writes that
some things that are supposed to be virtues will ruin a ruler if he does them.
When Machiavelli compares the ideal prince to a lion and a fox, what does the fox represent?
In what circumstances did Machiavelli write The Prince?
in exile from Florence
Whom does Machiavelli cite as an example of a leader who successfully deceived people?
Pope Alexander VI
What does Machiavelli suggest regarding qualities such as compassion, trustworthiness, and honesty?
A ruler should seem to possess them, but should depart from them when necessary.
According to Machiavelli, why did Julius II succeed so well in what he did?
He was bold, and the time was right for that.
After Duke Valentino uses the powerful Orsini family to gain Romagna, what does he do?
He tricks them into trusting him and has them killed.
To what does Machiavelli attribute the success of Hannibal, the famous general from antiquity?
his inhuman cruelty
Why does Machiavelli compare Fortune to a river?
It can be stormy and overflow, but you can also make preparations against that.
What does Duke Valentino do to Remirro de Orco, his loyal agent who has imposed Valentino's rule on Romagna?
He has him executed.
How much of our life is in our control, according to Machiavelli?
In the final chapter, Machiavelli compares contemporary Italy to
the captive Hebrews in Egypt.
Why does Machiavelli write that it is better for a ruler to be feared than loved?
because you can depend on people's fear
What is sprezzatura?
an effortless grace
When discussing visual art, Count Ludovico claims
that painting is better than sculpture.
Why isn't the Duke present for this conversation?
He goes to bed early because of his illness.
Regarding physical build, what should the ideal courtier look like?
He should be neither very tall nor very short.
When Count Ludovico recommends that the courtier study music, what does Gaspar object?
Music will make the courtier cowardly.
According to Count Ludovico, one of the benefits of studying literature is
an ability to speak with confidence.
Which of the following is not one of the proposed topics of conversation?
the contemporary political state of Italy
At one point, the conversation turns to the present state of France. What do the speakers say is the principal fault of the French?
They do not value literature enough.
The Count argues that the ideal courtier should avoid "summersaults" and "rope-walking." Why?
They are not appropriate for his social condition.
What does the term uomo universal mean?
someone who is good at everything
Which is true about Castiglione?
He himself was a courtier and frequented the social elite.
When the hour gets too late, how do the evening festivities conclude on the first day?
Two of the women at court perform a dance.
To cite an example of a great sculptor, Count Ludovico mentions
In the final section, what is the reason for the ideal courtier to have all these qualities?
It will allow him to guide and persuade the political ruler.
Which Renaissance artist painted a portrait of Castiglione?
According to the final section, why are the princes of Italy generally so corrupt?
Nobody ever tells them the truth.
What does Count Ludovico argue about the ideal courtier's birth?
He should be of noble birth.
According to the introductory sections, what do the courtiers do when evening falls?
go to the duchess's chambers to engage in social games
What does Count Ludovico think should be the courtier's principal occupation?
arms, that is, the military
The setting for Castiglione's work is
What is the effect of Gargantua's letter on Pantagruel?
It encourages him to make greater efforts in his studies.
In his letter to his son, whom does Gargantua blame for having destroyed good literature?
What does Rabelais claim about Socrates?
He was very ugly and repulsive on the outside, but full of wisdom inside.
How should Pantagruel test his knowledge?
Which of the following is not a language represented in Thélème's library?
What happens when someone wants to leave Thélème?
They choose a spouse from among the people of Thélème and live happily ever after.
At what age are people admitted into Thélème?
10-15 for girls, 12-18 for boys
Gargantua claims that the most learned people of his day were less educated than present-day
In order to make sure that all his learning does not end up causing him harm, what is Pantagruel supposed to do?
In the abbey of Thélème, what happens if monks or nuns visit?
The people of Thélème scrub and wash the premises after they leave.
What is the central rule at the abbey of Theleme?
Do what you want.
In his prologue to Gargantua, to whom does Rabelais dedicate his book?
drinkers and people with the pox
According to Rabelais, why will people behave well at Thélème?
because they have a good sense of honor
What branch of knowledge is Pantagruel not supposed to study?
Which of the following is not mentioned as one of the qualities of the inhabitants of Thélème?
They are very good theater actors.
Gargantua claims that printing
was inspired by God.
Where is Pantagruel studying when he receives the letter from his father?
Which is true regarding how the inhabitants of Thélème dress?
The men and women coordinate what they will wear every day.
The pseudonym under which Rabelais wrote Pantagruel and Gargantua is
Which of these groups is forbidden from coming to Thélème?
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