Unit 5: Chapter 19: Terms: The Cold War: America Pathways to the Present 2005
Terms in this set (31)
Harry S. Truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
The Eastern European nations that remained under the control of the Soviet Union after the Second World War.
Term used by Churchill in 1946 to describe the growing East-West divide in postwar Europe between communist and democratic nations
1945-1991 The period after the Second World War marked by rivalry and tension between the two nuclear superpowers, the United States and the communist government of the Soviet Union. The Cold War ended when the Soviet government collapsed in 1991.
This policy recognized the possibility that Eastern Europe was already lost to communism. It called for the United States to resist Soviet attempts to form Communist governments elsewhere in the world (stop communism from spreading)
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
George G. Marshall in 1947 proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Effort by the United States and Britain to ship by air 2.3 million tons of supplies to the residents of the Western-controlled sectors of Berlin from June 1948 to May 1949, in response to a Soviet blockade of all land and canal routes to the divided city.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence. This pact would ensure collective security.
A system in which a group of nations acts as one to preserve the peace of all. The group will defend the other in case of an attack on any member
This was in response to the NATO. An alliance signed between the Soviet Union and other Eastern European nations; Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania
Federal Civil Defense Administration
January 12, 1951, as part of the U.S. Cold War defenses and response to the Soviet Nuclear threat, this administration received a small budget for bomb-shelter construction and publicity. The new agency flooded the nation with posters and other information about how to survive a nuclear attack
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.
34th U.S. President. He criticized Truman's war efforts. He ended the war with the communist Chinese and Koreans because he threatened nuclear war. Korea remained divided into two parts.
federal employee loyalty program
Truman instituted program to evaluate the loyalty of government employees.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
The House of Representatives established the Committee on Un-American Activities, popularly known as "HUAC," in order to investigate "subversion."
Ten witnesses from the Hollywood film industry who were called to testify by HUAC, but refused because they believed the hearings were unconstitutional. Because they refused to answer questions, they were sent to prison.
List of 500 actors, writers; producers; and directors who were not allowed to work on Hollywood flims because of their alleged Communist connections that circulated among employers. Began in 1947, these persons who should not be hired.
Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952, kept limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
A conflict from 1950-1953 between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas MacArthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel due to a stalemate
Dividing line between North and South Korea
Combination of the US armed forces, arms manufacturers, and associated political and commercial interests, which grew rapidly during the cold war era.
The term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America during the early 1950s through his leadership in the House Un-American Activities Committee.
The Trials in which Senator McCarthey accused the U.S. Army of harboring possible communists.These trials were one of the first televised trials in America, and helped show America Senator McCarthey's irresponsibility and meanness.
Policy of the US that it would defend the Middle East against attack by any Communist country
Cold war competition between the U.S. and Soviet Union to build up their respective armed forces and weapons
Policy of making the military power of the United States and its allies so strong that no enemy would attack for fear of retaliation
A 1956 term used by Secretary of State John Dulles to describe a policy of risking war in order to protect national interests
Inter Continental Ballistic Missile. They have the power to shoot a missile from one country to another. This makes it easier to attack a country without getting to close to them.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
A 1960 incident in which the Soviet military used a guided missile to shoot down an American U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory. Because these spy planes flew more than 15 miles high, American officials had assumed that they were invulnerable to attack
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