General Science Module 11
portion of the skeleton that supports, protects the head, neck, and trunk
portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has limbs attached to it
A body covering, typically made of chitin, that provides support and protection
a close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits
What is the human superstructure made up of?
skeleton, muscles, and the skin
Name two differences between skeletal and smooth muscles.
smooth- smooth, unstriped, operate involuntarily (unconsciously by the brain) skeletal- rough, striped, operate voluntarily (with conscious thought)
What kind of muscle is the heart made of? Voluntary or Involuntary?
cardiac muscle, involuntary (thank goodness:)
What produces our blood cells?
What is keratinization?
Keratinization is a process that hardens living cells, used to make the outer layer of the epidermis as well as hair and nails. Keratinization kills cells
What are bones made of?
collagen and minerals, makes bones more flexible while minerals make bones hard and strong
What is the difference between compact and spongy bone?
compact packed together tightly, while spongy bone tissue has lots of space between its fibers
Are bones alive or dead?
Alive, living cells imbedded into the bone...bones grow!!
animals (Kingdom animalia) with backbone
animals (Kingdom animalia) without a backbone
creatures with an exoskeleton
Support structure exists on the inside of an organism including bones, cartilage, ligaments, etc
3 types of joints
hinge, saddle, ball and socket
Which joint offers the most range of motion? least?
ball and socket; hinge
List the joints in terms of stability from least to greatest.
ball and socket, saddle, hinge
hold bones of the joints together
Cushions the bones of the joints so they don't rub together
attach muscles to the skeleton
Do muscles shorten or lengthen when contracted?
contraction- shortens muscles; relaxation- lengthens
Plants ability to move toward light
What is purpose of hair?
provides insulation and sensation
What is the purpose of perspiration or "Sweat"?
Cools the body down and helps feed the beneficial bacteria and fungi that live on your skin
Are the cells on your outer layer of skin dead or alive?
Dead; therefore skin cells are constantly falling off
What do sebaceous glands produce?
oil that softens the skin and hair and makes it more difficult for certain bacteria to adhere to skin and hair
What class do animals with hair typically fall into?