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Axial Skeleton

portion of the skeleton that supports, protects the head, neck, and trunk

Appendicular skeleton

portion of the skeleton that attaches to the axial skeleton and has limbs attached to it


A body covering, typically made of chitin, that provides support and protection


a close relationship between two or more species where at least one benefits

What is the human superstructure made up of?

skeleton, muscles, and the skin

Name two differences between skeletal and smooth muscles.

smooth- smooth, unstriped, operate involuntarily (unconsciously by the brain) skeletal- rough, striped, operate voluntarily (with conscious thought)

What kind of muscle is the heart made of? Voluntary or Involuntary?

cardiac muscle, involuntary (thank goodness:)

What produces our blood cells?

bone marrow

What is keratinization?

Keratinization is a process that hardens living cells, used to make the outer layer of the epidermis as well as hair and nails. Keratinization kills cells

What are bones made of?

collagen and minerals, makes bones more flexible while minerals make bones hard and strong

What is the difference between compact and spongy bone?

compact packed together tightly, while spongy bone tissue has lots of space between its fibers

Are bones alive or dead?

Alive, living cells imbedded into the bone...bones grow!!


animals (Kingdom animalia) with backbone


animals (Kingdom animalia) without a backbone


creatures with an exoskeleton


Support structure exists on the inside of an organism including bones, cartilage, ligaments, etc

3 types of joints

hinge, saddle, ball and socket

Which joint offers the most range of motion? least?

ball and socket; hinge

List the joints in terms of stability from least to greatest.

ball and socket, saddle, hinge


hold bones of the joints together


Cushions the bones of the joints so they don't rub together


attach muscles to the skeleton

Do muscles shorten or lengthen when contracted?

contraction- shortens muscles; relaxation- lengthens


Plants ability to move toward light

What is purpose of hair?

provides insulation and sensation

What is the purpose of perspiration or "Sweat"?

Cools the body down and helps feed the beneficial bacteria and fungi that live on your skin

Are the cells on your outer layer of skin dead or alive?

Dead; therefore skin cells are constantly falling off

What do sebaceous glands produce?

oil that softens the skin and hair and makes it more difficult for certain bacteria to adhere to skin and hair

What class do animals with hair typically fall into?


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