APES: Chapters 4, 5, & 18 Key Terms and Information
Terms in this set (81)
the average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period (typically several decades)
the atmospheric layer closest to Earth's surface. This extends 16km above Earth. It is the densest layer of the atmosphere: most atmospheric nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor occur in this layer. Earth's weather occurs within this layer.
the atmospheric layer above the troposphere; extends 16-50km above Earth's surface. Because of its greater distance from Earth's gravitational pull, it is less dense than the troposphere. It is warmed by UV radiation more than lower atmospheric layers. Ozone forms a layer within the _________, which absorbs most of the Sun's UV rays.
the percentage of incoming sunlight that is reflected from a surface
the maximum amount of water vapor that can be in the air at a given temperature
this is the process of cooling in which, as air moves into higher altitudes, lessened pressure allows it to expand in volume, lowering the air's temperature.
this is the process of heating in which, as air sinks in altitude, heightened pressure causes an increase in temperature.
Latent Heat Release
this occurs when water vapor in the atmosphere condenses into liquid water, releasing energy (--> heat transfer).
Formed by convection currents that cycle between the equator and 30 degrees N and S. Process: 1.) at ITCZ, Sun heats tropical air causing it to rise, 2.) rising air experiences adiabatic cooling, causing it to fall back to Earth as precipitation, 3.) condensation of water vapor produces latent heat release, causing air to expand and rise farther up into the atmosphere, 4.) warm, rising air displaces cooler, drier air above it to the north and south, 5.) cool, dry air sinks and experiences adiabatic heating, reaching Earth's surface as dry air and moving back towards the equator.
(intertropical convergence zone) the area of the Earth that receives the most sunlight, and where the ascending branches of the two Haley cells converge
convection currents that are formed by air that rises at 60 degrees N and S and sinks at the poles (90 degrees N and S), at which rising air cools, and the water vapor condenses into precipitation. The air then dries as it moves towards the poles, where it sinks towards Earth's surface.
the deflection of an object's path due to Earth's rotation
large-scale pattern of water circulation
the upward movement of water toward the surface
El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
these periodic changes in winds and ocean currents cause the movement of warm water and air toward South America, suppressing upwelling off the coast of Peru and decreasing productivity there. Globally, this results in cooler and wetter conditions in the southeastern U.S. and unusually dry weather in southern Africa and Southeast Asia.
arid conditions on the leeward side of a mountain range, caused by warm, dry air.
terrestrial geographic regions in which there is a presence of similar plant growth forms, temperatures, and precipitation patterns.
(Biome) Cold, treeless; low-growing vegetation; soil completely frozen during winter; found in northernmost regions of N. Hemisphere in Russia, Canada, Scandinavia, and Alaska.
an impermeable, permanently frozen layer that prevents water from draining and roots from penetrating. It, combined with the cold temperatures and short growing season, prevents deep-rooted plants from living in the tundra.
(Biome) found on coast of southern California, South America, southwestern Australia, southern Africa, and in large areas surrounding the Mediterranean Sea; hot, dry summers, and mild, rainy winters; 12-month growing season, but plant growth constrained by low summer precipitation and relatively low temperatures in winter.
Temperate Grassland/Cold Desert
(Biome) lowest average annual precipitation of any temperate biome; found in Great Plains of N. America, South America, central Asia, and Eastern Europe; cold, harsh winters, and hot, dry summers; plant growth constrained by low precipitation in summer, and by low temperatures in winter.
(Biome) warm, wet, little seasonal temperature variation; lie within approx. 20 degrees N and S of equator; found in Central and South America, Africa, Southeast Asia, and northeastern Australia; because of warm temperatures and abundant rainfall, productivity is high, and decomposition is rapid
Tropical Seasonal Forest/Savanna
(Biomes) marked by warm temperatures and distinct wet and dry seasons; seasonal pattern caused by the seasonal movements of the ITCZ; trees drop their leaves during drought season to survive drought conditions, the produce new leaves during the wet season; found in Central America, Atlantic Coast of South America, southern Asia, northwestern Australia, sub-Saharan Africa. Tropical seasonal areas with the longest dry seasons lead to the formation of ________s.
(Biome) hot temperatures, extremely dry conditions, sparse vegetation; 30 degrees N and S; include Mojave Desert (SW U.S.), Sahara Desert (Africa), Arabian Desert (Middle East), and Great Victoria Desert (Australia); cacti, euphorbs, and succulent plants well adapted to this biome.
the shallow area of soil and water near the shore where algae and emergent plants such as cattails grow. Most photosynthesis occurs within this zone.
rooted plants can no longer survive, and floating algae called phytoplankton are the only photosynthetic organisms present. Extends as deep as sunlight can penetrate.
located below the Limnetic Zone (in very deep lakes); sunlight does not reach this zone, thus, producers cannot survive there, and nutrients are not easily recycled into the food web. Bacteria break down detritus in this zone.
the muddy bottom of a lake or pond beneath the Limnetic and Profundal zones.
(Biome) submerged or saturated by water for at least part of each year, but shallow enough to support emergent vegetation throughout; support species of plants that are specialized to live in submerged/saturated soils; include swamps, marshes, and bogs.
(Biome) found along the coast in temperate climates; like freshwater marshes, contain non-woody emergent vegetation; one of the most productive biomes in the world; many are found in estuaries, which are areas along the coast where fresh water rivers mix with salt waters from the ocean; estuaries are extremely productive places for plants and algae, facilitating filtering contaminants out of the water; provide important habitat for spawning fish and shellfish.
narrow band of coastline that exists between the levels of high tide and low tide.
(Biome) Earth's most diverse biome; found in warm, shallow waters beyond the shoreline; _____s themselves are tiny animals that secrete a layer of limestone to form an external skeleton; most ____s live in vast colonies, and leave their limestone skeletons behind when they die, contributing to the development of often massive reefs.
a problem in which the algae in corals die, resulting in a pale white appearance.
the upper layer of ocean water that receives enough sunlight to allow photosynthesis
the deeper layer of ocean water that lacks sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis
the process in which bacteria in aphotic zones use the energy contained in bonds of methane and hydrogen sulfide to generate energy (an alternative to photosynthesis).
this is the measure of the variety of an ecosystem
within a given ecosystem, this is the variety of species
within a given species, this is the variety of genes
the number of species in a given area, such as a pond, the canopy of a tree, or a plot of grassland, etc.
this tells us whether a particular ecosystem is numerically dominated by one species or whether all of its species have similar abundances.
the branching patterns of evolutionary relationships
defined as a change in the genetic composition of a population over time
evolution below the species level, such as the evolution of different varieties of (e.g. apples and potatoes)
when genetic changes give rise to new species, or to new genera, families, classes, or phyla--larger categories of organisms into which species are organized
the complete set of genes in an individual
this can be produced by an occasional mistake in the copying process, resulting in a random change in the genetic code
in plants and animals, this occurs as chromosomes are duplicated during reproductive cell division and a pice of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.
the actual set of traits expressed in an individual
Evolution by Artificial Selection
when humans determine which individuals breed, typically with a preconceived set of traits in mind
Evolution by Natural Selection
in this manner of evolution, the environment determines which individuals survive and reproduce.
the ability to survive and reproduce
traits that improve an individual's fitness
a reduction in the genetic diversity of a population caused by a reduction in its size
a change in population descended from a small number of colonizing individuals
this can occur when a subset of individuals from a larger population colonize a new area of habitat that is physically separated from that of the rest of the population. If the two separated habitats differ in environmental conditions, natural selection will favor different phenotypes in each of the habitats.
this, following geographic isolation, will cause the two separated populations to become so different that even if the physical barrier were removed, they could no longer interbreed and produce variable offspring.
this is the development of new species due to the separation of a larger, original population, resulting in geographic/reproductive isolation.
the evolution of one species into two species in the absence of geographic isolation (polyploidy is often the cause of such speciation).
using these techniques, scientists can copy genes from a species with some desirable trait and insert these genes into other species of plants, animals, microbes, etc., to produce genetically modified organisms
Genetically modified organisms
*see one previous
Range of tolerance
the limit to the abiotic conditions a species can tolerate (extremes of temperature, humidity, salinity, pH)
the suit of ideal conditions for a species
the range of abiotic and biotic conditions under which a species actually lives
the areas in the world in which a species lives
species that can live in a variety of habitats or feed on a wide variety of plant species
organisms specialized to live in a specific habitat or feed on a small group of species
the remains of organisms that have been preserved in rock; provided much of what is known about evolution
a period in which large numbers of species go extinct over relatively short periods of time.
in scientific terms, this occurs when the last member of a species dies.
populations with low genetic diversity are prone to this; it occurs when individuals with similar genotypes--typically relatives--breed with each other and produce offspring that have an impaired ability to survive and reproduce. This impaired ability occurs when each parent carries one copy of a harmful mutation in his or her genome.
this means that a species is at serious risk of extinction.
these are species that live in their historical range, typically where they have lived for thousands or millions of years.
also known as "exotic species," these are species that live outside their historical range.
this is an alien species that spreads rapidly across large areas. Such rapid spread of these species is possible because, in these new regions, they do not encounter the predators that kept their populations in check in their historical regions.
one of the earliest laws in the U.S. to control the trade of wildlife; first passed in 1900, the act was originally prohibited the transport of illegally harvested game animals, primarily birds and mammals, across state lines
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
(CITES) developed in 1973 to control international trade of threatened plants and animals.
this is the list of threatened species maintained by the IUCN.
Convention on Biological Diversity
held in 1992; created an international treaty to help protect biodiversity. The treaty had three objectives: conserve biodiversity, sustainably use biodiversity, and equitably share the benefits that emerge from the commercial use of genetic resources such as pharmaceutical drugs.
this occurs where a grassy field meets a forest; it is a consideration regarding the size and shape of protected area.
developed by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), these are protected areas consisting of zones that vary in the amount of permissible human impact. These reserves protect biodiversity without excluding all human activity.