Psychology 101 Mid-term Study Guide
Terms in this set (89)
Psychology started as:
the study of consciousness but did not emphasize the unconscious.
-Founder of Psychoanalysis
-proposed that dream images are disguised and symbolic expressions of unconscious wishes and urges
German physiologist who founded psychology as a formal science; opened first psychology research laboratory in 1879
Functionalism emphasizes the process of consciousness
1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth
G. Stanley Hall
-Est. 1st American Psychology Department
-1st president of the American Psychological Society
-American psychologist who established the first psychology research laboratory in the United States
-Believed that psychology should focus on observable behavior and Not on consciousness experience.
-Pioneer of operant conditioning - believed everything we do is determined by our past history of reinforcements and punishments.
a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures
A psychologist who specializes in the construction and use of tests designed to measure various psychological constructs such as intelligence and various personality characteristics.
Psychologists who test IQ, diagnose students' academic problems, and set up programs to improve students' achievement; assesses and counsels students, consults with educators and parents, and performs behavioral intervention when necessary.
possible explanation for a set of observations or possible answer to a scientific question
Any measurable conditions, events, characteristic, or behaviors
a widely accepted explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
The group that does not receive the experimental treatment.
The group that is submitted to change in the experiment
-Used organized and summarize data
-Measure central tendency
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
a detailed analysis of a person or group from a social or psychological or medical point of view
studies intended to indicate how variables are related to each other
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
the region of a neuron that is defined by the presence of the cell nucleus.
a layer of myelin encasing (and insulating) the axons of medullated nerve fibers
Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
synaptic gap or synaptic space; tiny gap between the terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron (almost never touch); location of the transfer of an impulse from one neuron to the next
long nerve fiber that sends signals
Voluntary motor control
Contributes to learning, memory, and sleep
Only Neuron transmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles
Neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
Inhibitory response to regulation of sleep and anxiety
natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
a neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels down an axon
the process during the action potential when sodium is rushing into the cell causing the interior to become more positive
The movement of the membrane potential of a cell away from rest potential in a more negative direction.
Central Nervous System
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
Two parts of peripheral nervous system:
somatic nervous system
autonomic nervous system
Toward the brain
Away from the brain
The brains 'sensory switch board' located at top of brainstem; directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex
part of the brain nearest the spinal cord which controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure
neural system (including the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus) located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
4 F's: Flight, flee, feeding, F*ing
part of the brain involved in sleep regulation also connects a cerebellum to the cerebral cortex; sleep and wake cycles
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
an unelaborated elementary awareness of stimulation
the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events
stimuli below our absolute threshold that can affect our behavior in subtle ways
The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
The maximum distance the particles of a medium move away from their rest positions as a wave passes through the medium.
the intensity of a color; how close it is to a pure hue
Additive color mixing
A process of color mixing that occurs when different wavelengths of light interact within the eye's receptors; a psychological process
Subtractive color mixing
A process of color mixing that occurs within the stimulus itself; a physical, not psychological, process
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
transparent anterior portion of the outer covering of the eye
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters
Blind Spot/ Optic Disk
*the optic nerve arises from the retina
*There are no retinal rods and cones in the area of the optic nerve
*no images can form on the retina at this point.
a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening
What part of the thalamus is associated with visual processing?
(Look up in notes)
Know what the two pathways are
The process whereby the eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination.
the process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination
What are different stages of sleep
Stage 1 - "drowsiness" Alpha-waves (awake but eyes closed) to Theta waves. Experience hypnic jerks, most conscious
Stage 2 - "light sleep" Sleep spindles and K-complex. Decreased muscular activity & no external awareness. 45-55% of total sleep.
Stage 3 - "Deep or slow wave" Delta-Waves. can experience night terrors, sleep walking, and talking
Beta-Waves, REM, Rapid low-voltage EEG. Muscular atonia and dreaming 20-25% sleep time. Increased sympathetics, high arousal.
What device is used to measure brain waves during sleep cycle?
Annual cycle: Hibernation and migration
28 day cycle: Menstrual
90-110 Min: Sleep ($ or 5 sleep cycles a night)
What happens to REM sleep through out the night?
-Majority of sleep occurs in this stage
Define rebound in terms of sleep
Increase deprived sleep cycles
Role of melatonin
Regulates the Circadian rhythms
-Released 2-3 hours before sleep and causes drowsiness.
Insomnia: A persistent inability to fall asleep.
Narcolepsy: Overpowering urge to fall asleep that may occur while talking or standing up.
Sleep apnea: Failure to breathe when asleep.
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian.
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
response with out conditioning (Food)
unlearned reaction to a UCS (Salvation)
a stimulus that does not initially elicit a response (tone)
Learned reaction to controlled stimulus (Salvation)
neutral stimulus through experience illicits response (tone)
an ability that has been acquired by training
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS); occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.
the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone. (Also called second-order conditioning.)
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
The presentation of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior
following an undesired response by removing a pleasant stimulus this is also called a time out and reduces the likelihood of the behavior reoccuring