Psychology of Old People Final
Terms in this set (84)
What veteran age category has the highest unemployment rate?
Among 2.4 million Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans, unemployment is:
The unemployment rate for young male U.S Veterans (18-24) of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as of 2011 is far higher as what % that that of non-veterans, at what %?
Veterans: 29.1%. Non-veterans: 17.6%
Male veterans (25-34) had higher unemployment rates at what% than non-veterans at what %?
Veterans: 13.4%. Non-veterans: 9.5%
Overall, among the 2.4 million veterans of the current wars, the unemployment rate was higher than that of the general population. What is the Veterans unemployment rate?
About how many of all veterans of the current wars had a service-connected disability?
As the current Veteran population ages, what can we expect to see in terms of their unemployment rates?
We may expect that their unemployment rates will continue to remain higher than their non-veteran counterparts.
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
delusions, hallucinations, disorganized and incoherent speech, abnormal motor behavior
What are the negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
Apathy, withdrawal, and lack of emotional expression.
Why are they called negative symptoms?
Because they are things that stopped happening. Like loosing interest
Why are they called positive symptoms?
Things that may happen.Because they are "add ons" to normal behavior
What does the competence-press model imply?
That needs of individuals should be met to the greatest extent possible.
Describe what the competence-press model predicts:
Predicts an optimal level of adjustment that institutionalized persons will experience on the basis of their levels of competence (physical and psychological) compared with the demands or "press" of the environment, or the demands it places upon individuals
The competence-press model is a balance between:
competence and press
In the optimal situation of the competence-press model, there would be a match between the:
individual's abilities and the environments demands,
Is a small amount of discrepancy acceptable in the competence-press model?
What happens when the discrepancies in the competence-press model go outside a "safe" range?
The individual will experience negative affect and maladaptive behaviors
Give an example of the competence press model:
The intellectually competent older resident (high competence) will do well in a setting in which autonomous decisions are expected (high press), but a person with significant cognitive impairment will adapt maximally when the environment is very structured (low press)
Who lives in community-based facilities?
Older adults who don't want to live in a residential facility but still need some type of care.
Name several ways community-based facilities financially offer their services:
volunteer groups at no cost to the individual, or fee-based, which may be paid in part by Medicare.
What are the 3 types of community-based facilities for older adults?
home health services, day treatment services, community housing alternatives
Examples of day treatment services
geriatric partial hospital, adult day care, respite care
Geriatric partial hospital:
Provides psychiatric care to older adults in the community
Adult day care:
Provides assistance or supervision during the day
Gives family caregivers a break while allowing older adults to receive needed services
What are three examples of community housing alternatives?
government assisted living, accessory dwelling unit, continuing care retirement community
Government assisted living:
Affordable housing or rental assistance for people with low to moderate incomes
Accessory dwelling unit:
Second living space in a home with independent quarters
Continuing care retirement community:
housing community with different levels of care
Age-adjusted death rate:
Statistic that combines all age specific death rates within groups of the population.
Age-specific death rate:
Crude death rate for a specific group
Crude death rate:
# of deaths / by population alive during a particular time period
Example of age-adjusted death rate:
In 2010: 2,468,435 deaths in the US = crude death rate 799.5 & age-adjusted death rate 746.2
The age-adjusted death rate is a death rate that takes into account:
the fact that more deaths occur in older age groups
A skilled nursing facility provides:
the most intensive nursing care available outside the hospital
What can nurses and other health care workers do in a skilled nursing facility?
Apply dressings or bandages, help residents with daily self-care tasks, and provide oxygen-therapy, check vital signs (temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure)
Career congruence says that you will be most satisfied in your job if:
you are in an environment that fits your personality type
When does career congruence or fit occur?
When your vocational type matches your occupational environment
Having career congruence makes you:
Feel happier & influences your ability to be effective on the job
What theory says that if you are happy, you will also be the most productive?
Vocational development theory
What happens when people can't find jobs congruent with their interests?
The RIASEC model predicts that people will experience low job satisfaction and a high degree of instability until they can find fulfilling work environments
According to the RIASEC model (Holland's vocational development theory, people express their personalities in their:
Vocational aspirations and interests
In the RIASEC model/ Holland's vocational theory, what do the 6 fundamental types or codes represent?
The universe of all possible vocational interests, competencies, and behaviors.
What does RIASEC model stand for
Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional
Example of conventional careers:
account, cashier, clerk, paralegal, financial analyst
Examples of enterprising careers:
chief executive, manager, salesperson, lawyer, education, administrator
Example of social careers:
Teacher, coach, massage therapist, psychiatric aide, waitperson
Example of artistic careers:
Dancer, editor, singer, artist, technical writer
Examples of investigative careers:
chemist, economist, physician, market researcher
Examples of realistic careers:
engineer, farmer, technician, cook, machinist
How many letters are usually combined in the RIASEC model
2-3 : 1st letter is primary type into which a person's interests/occupation falls, 2nd & 3rd allow for accurate and differentiated picture of the individual/occupation
What does the hexagon structure of the RIASEC model mean
That the types have a relationship to each other based on their distance from each other on the structure
What other model is the WHO model like and why?
Bromfenbreners. In that it specifies a role for social, health care, and economic determinants as well as pointing to the importance of the physical environment
What does the WHO model of successful aging encompass?
The process of optimizing opportunities for health, participation, and security in order to enhance quality of life as people age
What is in the outer part of the circle in the WHO model
Gender & Culture
What is in the inner ring that influences active aging in the WHO model
health & social services, behavioral determinants, personal determinants, physical environment, social determinants, economic determinants
Aging in place is the idea that:
That with appropriate services, older adults can remain in their homes or at least own communities.
How do interventions that allow older adults to maintain their autonomy and previous patterns of living affect them?
Older adults can benefit
Super's life-span life-stage theory:
Exploration (teens-mid 20's) --> Establishment (20s-30s) --> Maintenance (mid-career) --> Disengagement (late career)
Why may someone not follow the super's theory stages in order?
Recycling and career plateauing
What does Super's theory propose?
That people attempt to realize their inner potential through their career choices (if you see yourself as an artist, then you will desire work in which you can express that view of yourself)
People explore career alternatives and select a vocation that they will find to express their self-concept
People are focused on achieving stability and attempt to remain within the same occupation (also seek to move up career ladder)
People attempt to hold onto their positions rather than to seek further advancement
Workers begin to prepare for retirement, perhaps spending more time in their leisure pursuits
The process through which workers change their main field of career activity partway into occupational life
remain static in their vocational development
In which they do not advance up to higher-level positions
They feel that they have mastered their work and no longer see it as a challenge
What are the four dimensions of the residential environment?
Aesthetics and safety of local area, convenience of access to shops and services, positive regard and mutual help among neighbors, attractiveness and ease of accomodation within the home
What types of works show lastingness?
late-life creative works
Hearings on nursing home quality revealed that:
Nursing home abuse was still rampant
What % of nursing homes were cited with violations that caused actual harm to residents?
What flaws in the survey were found in the congressional hearings on nursing home abuse?
Inspectors often missed significant problems (bed sores), state discouraged filing complaints, understaffed
Intrinsic factors are also called:
Explain intrinsic factors:
specific to job itself, engage sense of ID, work pertains to feelings of competence, autonomy, sand stimulation of personal growth --> work that is calling
Extrinsic factors are also called:
Explain extrinsic factors:
They accompany the job but aren't central to its performance. salary, conditions, employment policies, racial climate, don't engage sense of ID
Why can people be satisfied with their jobs?
Either because they love the work that they perform, they value the salary and other perks, or both
Affective events theory:
Events at work produce affective reactions which influence attitudes toward work and performance
What is job satisfaction determined by?
autonomy, participation in organization, supervisory support, concern by supervisors for employee welfare
Ex of affective events theory:
If you experience positive events at work, like being complimented by a supervisor, you will have a positive emotional experience; if you experience negative events, such as conflict with a coworker, your emotions will be negatively affected