AP Biology Ecology Review

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Terms in this set (58)
Carrying CapacityMaximum population size that environment can support with no degradation of habitatHow do we measure how many individuals in a population?-number of individuals in an area -mark & recapture methodsBiomeA large, relatively distinct terrestrial region with characteristicSalinity-Amount of dissolved oxygen -Availability of light for photosynthesisEstuaryCoastal body of water with access to both the ocean and fresh water from riversBiogeographyStudy of the geographic distribution of plants and animalsWhat are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?temperature and rainfallWhich of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?desertWhich of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?coniferous forestWhich biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?tendraWhich biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?tropical rainforestWhich location on Earth receives the most solar radiation per unit area?EquatorWhich desert is caused by a Hadley cell?Sahara Desert in Africa.What are population dynamics?Changes in populations through time.The mark-recapture method works best for _______ species whose individuals tend to be highly mobile.activeWhat are the two major types of biomes?1. Terrestrial biomes , which are land-based, such as deserts and forests. 2. Aquatic biomes , which are water-based, such as ponds and lakes.Biological & geochemical processes cycle ________ and _______ in ecosystemsnutrients, waterOnly _____ cycles in an ecosystem (not energy)matterFood Chainconsists of different trophic levels to show the path of consumption in an ecosystem producers->primary consumers->secondary consumers etcPrimary Consumeraka herbivore- eats producersSecondary Consumercarnivore- eats primary consumerMutualismboth members benefit from the relationship (++)Commensalismone species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed in the relationship (+0)Parasitismone member benefits (parasite) while other harmed (host) but not killed (+-)Ecological NicheA specific role of a species within an ecosystem, including its use of resources, and relationships with other species.Character Displacementevolution of anatomical differences that reduce competition between similar species10% Rulerule stating that roughly 10% of the energy captured in the biomass of one trophic level is passed on and incorporated into the biomass of the next trophic level (remaining 90% used in CR, lost as heat, passed through body as waste, etc)Taigabiome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw (coniferous forest biome)Permafrostground that is permanently frozenWet and dry seasons in tropical deciduous forests are ultimately caused bythe tilt of the earthPermafrost is a characteristic of the _____tundraWhich of the following biomes is dominated by gymnosperm or conifer tree?taigaVertical Stratification is most commonly found intropical rain forestIn which of the following biomes would you expect decomposers to work rapidly and efficiently?tropical rain forest (temperatures accommodate rapid rates of decomposition)Competitive exclusion is most likely to occur between twoclosely related species occupying the same nicheEutrophication in lakes is frequently the direct result ofnutrients enrichmentDuring the carbon cycle, which of the following carbon compounds would be utilized as an energy source by heterotrophs?organic moleculesAn overlap in the niches of two species will most frequently result ininterspecific competitionWhat are the characteristics of a tundra?-low precipitation -dry winds -permafrost (ground that is permanently frozen)What are the characteristics of a taiga?-coniferous forest -cold winters -short growing seasonsWhat are the characteristics of a temperate forest?-large conifers -high precipitation -average temperatures of 0 C-20 CWhat are the characteristics of a grassland?Deep, mineral-rich soil Moderate but uncertain precipitation Well suited to growing grain cropsChaparralThickets of small-leaf evergreensWhat are the characteristics of a desert (dry biome)?-low levels of precipitation -Organisms with specialized water-conserving adaptationsWhat are the characteristics of a tropical rain forest?-Mineral-poor soil -High rainfall evenly distributed throughout the year (50 to 260 inches ) -High species richness and high productivity -average temperature between 20oC to 34oCPlanktonFree-floating organismsNektonStrongly swimming organismsBenthosBottom-dwelling organisms