CSET English Subtest 1 & 3
Terms in this set (70)
An ancient form of poetry writing is renowned for its small size as well as the precise punctuation and syllables needed on its three lines. Asian origin. 5 syllables, 7 syllables, and 5 syllables per respective line.
A five-line witty poem with a distinctive rhythm. The first, second, and fifth lines, the longer lines, rhyme. The third and fourth shorter lines rhyme. (A-A-B-B-A).
A short rhyming poem with 14 lines. Use iambic meter (short followed by long meter) in each line and use line-ending rhymes. Originally from the 13/14th century. Used by Shakespeare.
nineteen-line poem with two repeating rhymes and two refrains. The form is made up of five tercets followed by a quatrain. The first and third lines of the opening tercet are repeated alternately in the last lines of the succeeding stanzas; then in the final stanza, the refrain serves as the poem's two concluding lines. Italian and Spanish dane-songs during the Renaissance.
alternates lines of four and three beats, often in quatrains, rhymed abab, and often telling a story. three stanzas with scheme ABABBCBC
the systematic regularity in rhythm; this systematic rhythm (or sound pattern) is usually identified by examining the type of "foot" and the number of feet.
xpressed through stressed and unstressed syllables. Take the word, poetry, for example. The first syllable is stressed, and the last two are unstressed, as in PO-e-try
Forms of Poetry
The three most common: Lyric (any poem with one speaker who expresses thoughts and feelings); Narrative (tells a story); Descriptive (describes the world - outward focused)
Features of Poetry
every line in the poem uses the same rhyme scheme
contains two line stanzas with AA rhyme scheme that often appears, AA,BB,CC,DD...
Very common. ABABAB
Repeats like a couplet, uses rhyme scheme of AAA
How lines are grouped together: couplet (2), tercet (3), quatrain (4), ,cinquain (5), sestet (6), septet (7), octave (8)
the repetition of initial sounds on the same line or stanza - Big bad Bob bounced bravely.
the repetition of vowel sounds (anywhere in the middle or end of a line or stanza) - Tilting at windmills
the repetition of consonant sounds (anywhere in the middle or end of a line or stanza) - And all the air a solemn stillness holds. (T. Gray)
words that sound like that which they describe - Boom! Crash! Pow! Quack! Moo! Caress...
the repetition of entire lines or phrases to emphasize key thematic ideas.
a form of repetition where the order of verbs and nouns is repeated; it may involve exact words, but it more importantly repeats sentence structure - "I came, I saw, I conquered".
is the rhetorical term used to designate the most elementary form of resemblances: most are introduced by "like" or "as." These comparisons are usually between dissimilar situations or objects that have something in common, such as "My love is like a red, red rose."
eaves out "like" or "as" and implies a direct comparison between objects or situations. "All flesh is grass."
one to one correspondence between a series of abstract ideas and a series of images or pictures presented in the form of a story or a narrative. For example, George Orwell's Animal Farm is an extended allegory that represents the Russian Revolution through a fable of a farm and its rebellious animals.
you treat abstractions or inanimate objects as human, that is, giving them human attributes, powers, or feelings (e.g., "nature wept" or "the wind whispered many truths to me").
Types of Nonfiction writing
expository, argumentative, functional, and opinion pieces; essays on art or literature; biographies; memoirs; journalism; and historical, scientific, technical, or economic writings (including electronic ones).
purpose of this type of writing is to explain or inform a reader about a certain topic. The reader may or may not have prior knowledge about the topic being discussed, so research is central
Types of Fiction Writing
Two main types are literary (appeal to smaller and more intellectually adventurous readers - original thought) and commercial (broad audience with subgenres like "mystery and science fiction).
Types of Plays
Ten minute plays
One act plays
Full length plays
Five act plays - has exposition (introduction), rising action, climax, falling action, denouement (conclusion)
the chain of related events that explains to us what happens in a story.
"the Hook": A struggle between two opposing characters or forces.
Fable, Legend Parable
a short story, typically with animals as characters, conveying a moral.
a traditional story sometimes popularly regarded as historical but unauthenticated.
a simple story used to illustrate a moral or spiritual lesson, as told by Jesus in the Gospels.
The Catcher in Rye
JD Salinger (1951) - has themes of teenage angst and alienation, teen rebellion; written in the subjective style point of view
shaped by the history that produced it; reflects beliefs and traditions that come from the nation's frontier days; strong tendency to break with literary tradition and to strike out their awn directions; lively streak of humor
based on piety, a deeply religious spirit (the vedas); written in epic form (Ramayana and Mahabharata); medieval literature earliest works were sectarian designed to advance some unorthodox regional belief
early poetry; long course of development; open literature which brings in new ideas in literary form and styles; influenced other Asian styles (Japan, Vietnam, and Korea); poetry tries to make aesthetic appeal that is visual and aural; calligraphy
said to be as prominent as English literature; haiku; favored ambiguity and hard to read/decipher; emotional rather than intellectual
tied closely to the history of the people (nomadic life, rise of Islam, etc.); Qur'an; Called the Adab; One Thousand and One Nights
Post Colonial Literature
writing which has been "affected by the imperial process from the moment of colonization to the present day"; revises history; asserting cultural integrity; resistant identities; reclaiming spaces and places
Romantic Literary Movement
1798-1860 - Mostly English and American poetic mode, poems written in the "real language" of men and about common life; emotional and enthusiastic; embraces forces of nature and the human imagination; strong thematic content; natural imagery redeems the imagination of the individual stuck in the crowded, industrial torment of the city; imagination empowers the individual to escape society's structures, authority, and fear of death; over the top descriptions; transcendence is ultimate goal
Modern Literary Movement
1900-1950 - (Old West is history) - questioned what came before, willingness to experiment with new forms, daring, allusions, reduce the human experience to fragments, many viewpoints, interaction between environment and individual - Picasso
Postmodernism Literary Movement
1960-present - share some concerns and characteristics of modernism; most artists reject the label (Beats, Confessional Poets, the Black Arts Movements, etc.); parody, irony, and narrative instability inform the tone; allusions to popular culture; binary concepts (hot and cold); no real center; surface level is interesting; "first thought, best though!" - aesthetic ideal; politics influences
Homeric Greece Literary Movement
850 BCE - Ancient Greece - Classical Literature. Early verse (like "Iliad" "Odyssey") was epic in nature, a form of narrative literature recounting the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group. First works of Western literature.
900-100 BCE - invention of drama, epic, and lyrical poems, myths gods, fables
1066-1450 Religious and secular works, Chancery, oral, kings jesters, knights, maidens, Beowulf, epochs
1485-1603 - belief humanity was making progress; break from feudal models of living; new artistry; "humanism" adopted which is the belief that perfection is achievable on earth; rise of nationalism and democracy; printing press; Martin Luther; Shakespeare
Elizabethan Age Literary Movement
1558-1603 - probably the most splendid age in the history of English literature, during which such writers as Sir Philip Sidney, Edmund Spenser, Roger Ascham, Richard Hooker, Christopher Marlowe, and William Shakespeare flourished; flowering poetry (sonnet, dramatic blank verse), golden age of drama (Shakespeare), prose
Neoclassical Period Literary Movement (Age of Reason)
1660-1798 - inspiration from classical Greek and Roman arts; the Enlightenment; order, moderation, limits, structure, reason, bowing to society; Alexander Pope
Middle School Complexity Band
860L-1010L stretch is 925L-1185L
Upper High School Complexity Band
906L-1120L stretch is 1050L-1335L
Basic Elements of Fiction
Conflict, setting, characters, point of view, tone, mood, and theme
the choice and use of words and phrases in speech or writing; the accent, inflection, intonation, and speech-sound quality manifested by an individual speaker, usually judged in terms of prevailing standards of acceptability; enunciation.
a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. It does not describe in detail the person or thing to which it refers. It is just a passing comment and the writer expects the reader to possess enough knowledge to spot the allusion and grasp its importance in a text. Ex. "I do not approve of this quixotic idea."
use of symbols to signify ideas and qualities by giving them symbolic meanings that are different from their literal sense. Generally, it is an object representing another to give it an entirely different meaning that is much deeper and more significant.
use figurative language to represent objects, actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our physical senses; create visual representation of ideas in our minds.
a figure of speech in which words are used in such a way that their intended meaning is different from the actual meaning of the words; the difference between appearance and the reality
a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas. Ex. "Your friend is your enemy." "Wise fool."
an exaggeration of ideas for the sake of emphasis. Ex. "Ages have passed since I last saw you."
intentionally make a situation seem less important than it really is.
Anaphora & Epistrophe
the use of a word referring to or replacing a word used earlier in a sentence, to avoid repetition, such as do in I like it and so do they.
School of Literary Criticism - Aesthetic Approach
often associated with Romanticism, a philosophy defining artistic value as the primary goal in understanding literature. This includes both literary critics who have tried to understand and/or identify values and those like Oscar Wilde who have stressed art for art's sake.
School of Literary Criticism Historical/Political Approach
examines the work through its historical context and seeks to understand cultural and intellectual history through literature; believe it is necessary to know about the author and the political, economical, and sociological context of his times in order to truly understand his works.
School of Literary Criticism Philosophical/Moral Approach
the larger purpose of literature is to teach morality and to probe philosophical issues.
School of Literary Criticism Formalist/New Criticism Approach
looks at literary works on the basis of what is written, and not at the goals of the author or biographical issues; a school of literary criticism and literary theory having mainly to do with structural purposes of a particular text; close reading of the text
School of Literary Criticism Deconstructionist Approach
a strategy of "close" reading that elicits the ways that key terms and concepts may be paradoxical or self-undermining, rendering their meaning undecidable
School of Literary Criticism Feminist Approach
emphasizes themes of gender relations; seeks to analyze and describe the ways in which literature portrays the narrative of male domination by exploring the economic, social, political, and psychological forces embedded within literature
School of Literary Criticism Psychoanalytical/Archetypal Approach
explores the role of consciousnesses and the unconscious in literature including that of the author, reader, and characters in the text; literature is fundamentally entwined with the psyche