123 terms

Unit 19: Cold War to Present

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What was the conflicting aims of the us and ussr after ww2 become known as from 1945-1991?
Cold war
What Conference gave control of Eastern Europe to the soviets as us and Britain were more focused on France?
Tehran conference
What was negotiated at the Yalta conference?
Germany was divided into four occupied zones and Stalin promised to allow free elections in Eastern Europe
What had happened by the time the Potsdam conference came around?
The soviets had turned Eastern Europe into communist puppet "satellite nations"
What did the us do when they ended neutrality?
Joined the United Nations and made an alliance against the soviet Warsaw Pact
What was the alliance against the Warsaw Pact called?
NATO
What does NATO stand for?
North Atlantic treaty organization
What was the iron curtain?
The division between free and communist europe
What pledged to support any nation resisting communist takeover?
The truman doctrine
What used loans and aid to rebuilt Europe?
The Marshall plan
Who were the first countries using the Marshall plan?
Greece and turkey
When did Germany become a focus of the Marshall plan?
The Berlin airlift (1947) and the construction of the Berlin Wall (1961)
What led to limited wars in Vietnam and Korea?
The fear of a nuclear ww2
How were the soviets involved in Korea?
They created a communist regime in North Korea that invaded South Korea in 1950
What's the 38th parallel?
The line between north and south korea
Who's involvement with Korea results in being split in half?
China's
What created north and south Vietnam when France lost?
The Geneva accords
Who escalated us involvement but lost the war in Vietnam?
President Lyndon Johnson
Why did we lose the Vietnam war?
Restriction and eroding public support of the war
What led to the withdrawal of the us with the promise north Vietnam would not invade the south?
The Paris peace accords
When did north Vietnam unite both vietnams?
When they invaded south Vietnam in 1975
What did the us develop in 1952 and the USSR in 1953?
The hydrogen bomb
Who came to power during the Cuban revolution?
Fidel castro
What leader was overthrown by Fidel Castro bc of lack of support by us?
Dictator fulgencio Batista
Who did Cuba turn to for aid when they became communist?
Soviets
What did US spy planes photograph in Cuba leading to a showdown?
Missile bases (soviet)
What was ended when the soviets removed missiles and us promised not to invade Cuba?
The Cuban missile crisis
What was the space race?
An offshoot of the nuclear arms race
What was the first satellite in space?
Sputnik
Who had the first man in space?
Soviets
How did the US gain supremacy in the space race?
By landing the man on the moon in 1969 through NASA's Apollo program
What was agreed in 1963 to reduce tension?
US, Britain, and USSR agreed not to test nuclear weapons underwater, in the atmosphere, or in space
What treaty was signed by 137 nations in 1968 limiting nuclear development?
Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty
What recognized soviet drawn boundaries in Eastern Europe to improve relations with the communist Bloc?
The Helsinki accords in 1975
When did china fall to communism?
1949
What was formed when Mao Zedong came to power?
People's republic of china
Where did chiang Kai shek retreat to?
Taiwan
What was the Great Leap Forward?
Sought egalitarianism through industrialization and dismantling the bureaucracy
What led to 15 million deaths in china?
Famine and industrial breakdown
What did Mao enact to end western education and the traditions of old china?
Cultural revolution
Who took control of the Communist party of china after maos death?
Deng xiaoping
What did xiaoping do?
Reestablish the bureaucracy, rebuilt higher education, and instituted open trade with all nations
Who constituted as first second and third world countries?
First- us and its allies
Second- Soviet Union and its allies
Third- aligned with neither
Who used civil disobedience to protest in India?
Mohandas ghandi
When did Britain give India their independence?
After ww2 but Hindus and muslims complicated it
Who formed an independent India?
Jawaharlal Nehru of the Indian National Congress
Who led Pakistan separating from India through the Muslim league?
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
What was the first independent country in Africa?
Ghana under Kwame Nkrumah
What country in Africa followed Ghana in nationalism but tribals caused divisions?
Nigeria
What was apartheid?
A rigid system of racial segregation created by the white ruled South Africa in 1948
What group went against the policy of apartheid?
African national congress
What anc leader was elected the first president in 1994 in South Africa?
Nelson Mandela
What leader in Egypt expelled the British and nationalized the Suez Canal?
Gamal Nasser
Who revolted against France until it was given independence in 1962?
Algeria
Who led turkey to create a secular state?
Ataturk
What does turkey continually struggle with?
Challenges from Islamic clerics and large nationalist Kurd minority
Who established the Pahlavi dynasty in Iran seeking to secularize?
Reza shah
Who led a 1979 revolution in Iran?
Ayatollah Khomeini
What did ayatollah do?
He launched a cultural revolution like china, elevated Shiism and created a Shia theocracy
Who was the Iraqi leader that invaded Kuwait?
Saddam Hussein
What war did the us try to intervene with Hussein invading Kuwait?
Persian gulf war
Who sought to create their own state leading to wars in 67 and 73?
The Palestinian liberation organization
What did Egypt lose when they attacked Israel?
Sinai peninsula and the Suez canal
What returned territory to Egypt if they recognized Israel as a country?
Camp David accords in 1979
What president negotiated the camp David accords?
President jimmy carter
What camp David accords led to campaigns against Israel by what groups?
Hamas and hezbollah
Who did the caudillos unite under in 1929?
The party of the institutionalized revolution
Who became president establishing a socialist government that nationalized industries?
Lazaro Cardenas
Who became the first non pri candidate elected in Mexico?
Vincente fox
Who took power by force in Brazil in 1929?
Getulio Vargas
Who industry did Vargas nationalize?
Oul
What charismatic leader stabilized Argentina after the depression?
General Juan peron
What did peron do?
He nationalized industries and ruled until 1955 then made a comeback in 1973 before a military dictatorship
What socialist leader was overthrown by the Chilean military?
Salvador Allende
Who reversed nationalization of banks and industries and welcomed foreign investment in chile?
Augusto Pinochet
When was a civilian government elected in chile?
1990
Who was the new party secretary after stalins death?
Nikita Khrushchev
What did Nikita advocate?
Destalinization- restructed farms and relaxed censorship, peaceful coexistence with the us
Who ended reforms and tried to cope with growing economy problems of the USSR after Nikita?
Leonid Brezhnev
Who had a three way approach to prevent economic disaster in USSR a reformer?
Mikhail Gorbachev
What was glasnost?
Openness, a policy of more open discussion including criticism of the government and policies
Glasnost angered who?
The politburo, the government body of the USSR
What was democratization implemented by Gorbachev?
Allowing elections of representatives to the Congress of peoples Deputies causing more discord
What was perestroika?
Attempt to transfer economic power from government to private hands by allowing private companies and farms
What pushed Gorbachev out of office?
The revolution of 1991
What coup by conservations of Gorbachev led what to dissolve?
The ussr
What became the largest of the independent republics out of the USSR?
Russia
Who led the independent Russia?
Boris Yeltsin
Who took power by force in Brazil in 1929?
Getulio Vargas
Who industry did Vargas nationalize?
Oul
What charismatic leader stabilized Argentina after the depression?
General Juan peron
What did peron do?
He nationalized industries and ruled until 1955 then made a comeback in 1973 before a military dictatorship
What socialist leader was overthrown by the Chilean military?
Salvador Allende
Who reversed nationalization of banks and industries and welcomed foreign investment in chile?
Augusto Pinochet
When was a civilian government elected in chile?
1990
Who was the new party secretary after stalins death?
Nikita Khrushchev
What did Nikita advocate?
Destalinization- restructed farms and relaxed censorship, peaceful coexistence with the us
Who ended reforms and tried to cope with growing economy problems of the USSR after Nikita?
Leonid Brezhnev
Who had a three way approach to prevent economic disaster in USSR a reformer?
Mikhail Gorbachev
What was glasnost?
Openness, a policy of more open discussion including criticism of the government and policies
Glasnost angered who?
The politburo, the government body of the USSR
What was democratization implemented by Gorbachev?
Allowing elections of representatives to the Congress of peoples Deputies causing more discord
What was perestroika?
Attempt to transfer economic power from government to private hands by allowing private companies and farms
What pushed Gorbachev out of office?
The revolution of 1991
What coup by conservations of Gorbachev led what to dissolve?
The ussr
What became the largest of the independent republics out of the USSR?
Russia
Who led the independent Russia?
Boris Yeltsin
Who followed Yeltsin and seeked to restore soviet influence?
Vladimir Putin
When did the war on terror start?
After the attacks of 9/11 on the World Trade Center and pentagon
Who was osama bin laden?
The leader of al-qaeda and ordered 9/11
Where did the US invade after 9/11?
Afghanistan and iraq
Who reformed the economy of china by dismantling the command economy for socialist market economy?
Deng xiaoping
What did xiaoping's economy entail?
Private businesses and some capitalism were allowed and foreign investment was encouraged in urban china
What huge demonstration for political reform resulted in thousands dying?
Tiananmen Square in 1989 that criticized government corruption
What helped integration in the world?
Rise of supranational organizations
What were 2 important supranational organizations other than the un?
World trade organization and the world bank
What's the world bank?
Loans money to low and middle income nations to support economic development
What's the world trade organization?
Helps negotiate, implement, and regulate trade agreements between its 100 members
What treaty created the European Union?
The Maastricht treaty
What did the European Union do?
Create a common currency
What group lowered trade barriers between the US, Mexico and Canada and eliminates tariffs to spur economic growth?
The North American free trade agreement (NAFTA)
What are MDC's and LDC's?
More/less developed countries
What period did rapid urbanization, population growth and increased agricultural productivity occur?
Green revolution