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the belief that people should be mainly loyal to their nation—that is, the people with whom they share a culture and history—rather than to a king or empire

Europe's Great Powers

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, Britain, and Russia

The Balkans

a region in Southeast Europe that Russia and Austria-Hungary tried to dominate


a policy in which strong nations seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially


a policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war

Otto Von Bismarck

freely used war to unify Germany; declared Germany to be a "satisfied power"

Triple Alliance

a military alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in the years preceding WWI

Kaiser Wilhelm II

ruler of Germany; forced Bismarck to resign; didn't wish to share power with anyone

Triple Entente

a military alliance between Britain, France, and Russia preceding WWI

"Powder Keg" of Europe

what the Balkans were known as because of the long history of natioknalist uprisings and ethnic clashes


annexed by Austria; 2 Balkan areas with large Slavic populations

Archduke Franz Ferdinand, wife Sophie

paid a visit to Sarajevo, Bosnian capital; they were shot and killed as they rode through the streets in an open car

Gavril Princip, the Black Hand

assassinated Franz Ferdinand and Sophie; 19 years old; member of the Black Hand Society that was committed to ridding Bosnia of Austrian rule


time by which a certain task must be accomplished or else there will be consequences


organizing and moving troops in case of war

Central Powers

WWI; the nations of Germany and Austria-Hungary, along with the other nations that fought on their side

Allied Powers (Allies)

WWI; the nations of Great Britain, France, and Russia, along with the other nations that fought on their side; also, the group of nations—including Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States—that opposed the Axis Powers in WWII

Sir Edward Grey

Britain's foreign minister, foresaw the horror ahead; said "The lamps are going out all over Europe. We shall not see them lit again in our lifetime."



Western Front

WWI; the region of northern France where the forces of the Allies and the Central Powers battled each other

Schlieffen Plan

Germany's military plan at the outbreak of WWI, according to which German troops would rapidly defeat France and then move east to attack Russia

First Battle of the Marne ("Miracle of the Marne")

the single most important event of the war; the 1st major clash on the Western Front

Trench Warfare

a form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battle field

"No Man's Land"

the space between the opposing trenches

New Weapons of War

Poison Gas, machine gun, tank, and submarine

Eastern Front

the region along the German-Russian border where Russians and Serbs battled Germans, Austrians, and Turks

Black Hand

Secret Society committed to ridding Bosnia of Austrian rule

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