Environmental Conservation Final

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Terms in this set (89)
placeboA placebo is anything that seems to be a "real" medical treatment -- but isn't. It could be a pill, a shot, or some other type of "fake" treatment. What all placebos have in common is that they do not contain an active substance meant to affect health.experimental groupAn experimental group is the group in an experiment that receives the variable being tested. One variable is tested at a time. The experimental group is compared to a control group, which does not receive the test variable. In this way, experimental groups are used to find answers in an experiment.producera person, company, or country that makes, grows, or supplies goods or commodities for sale.consumera person or thing that eats or uses something.decomposeran organism, especially a soil bacterium, fungus, or invertebrate, that decomposes organic material.which biome is southern indiana?deciduous forestwhat is the most endangered biome?temperate grassslands (?)biggest threats to temperate grasslands?Continued global warming could turn current marginal grasslands into deserts as rainfall patterns change. Land once incompatible with row-crop agriculture, but which provided a living to ranching families and habitat for prairie wildlife, is being converted to row crops. Development of urban areas is increasingly cutting into grassland habitat. Drought-hardy, cold-resistant, and herbicide-tolerant varieties of soybeans, wheat, and corn allow crops to expand into native grassland. Where only one crop is grown, pests and disease can spread easily, creating the need for potentially toxic pesticideshow to write scientific nameThe genus name is written first. The genus name is always underlined or italicized. The first letter of the genus name is always capitalized. Example: Sansevieria or Sansevieria Specific Epithet The specific epithet is written second. The specific epithet is always underlined or italicized. The first letter of the specific epithet name is never capitalized. Example: trifasciata or trifasciata Scientific Name The scientific name of this plant would appear as follows: Sansevieriatrifasciata or Sansevieria trifasciatawhat is human population now?7 billionwhen did we get our first billion1805what is the total capacity max we can have on eartheither 9 or 10 billionWhat makes zero population growthZero population growth, sometimes abbreviated ZPG (also called the replacement level of fertility), is a condition of demographic balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines, considered as a social aim by some.If everyone had America's carbon footprint, how many earths would it take to support our lifestyle?5What is a carbon (ecological) footprint?Our carbon Footprint measurement translates the amount of carbon dioxide emissions into the amount of productive land and sea area required to sequester those carbon dioxide emissions. This tells us the demand on the planet that results from burning fossil fuels.What is the dependency ratio and what is predicted for it in the future?The dependency ratio is a measure showing the number of dependents, aged zero to 14 and over the age of 65, to the total population, aged 15 to 64. It is also referred to as the "total dependency ratio." This indicator gives insight into the amount of people of nonworking age compared to the number of those of working age.When are famines the worst?crop failure, population imbalance, or government policiesadvantages of GMOSAccording to the Office of Science at the U.S. Department of Energy, one of the pros of genetically modified crops is a better taste, increased nutrients, resistance to disease and pests, and faster output of crops. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations also says that farmers can grow more food on less land with genetically modified crops. Genetically modified animals have certain genes inserted into their genomes so that they can produce 'better' milk, eggs, and meat. These animals also are expected to have a higher resistance to disease and overall better health, with better natural waste management. In theory, genetically modified crops and animals will also be more environmentally friendly because they conserve water, soil, and energy.What are disadvantages of CAFO's?There are many noted disadvantages in CAFO's. The digestive system of a cow is not designed to constantly consume grain or corn products, which leaves most producers giving cattle a constant dose of antibiotics. Cattle stand in small, crowded areas in their own feces and urine all the time. Corn fed beef has been labeled by the USDA as being better than other forms of beef because of its flavor and tenderness, however, corn fed beef is much less healthy because it contains higher levels of bad fats and lower levels of good fats. Another big concern and/or disadvantage of CAFO's is E.coli contamination. Cattle that are fed a high corn based diet can have increased amounts of E.coli in their digestive tract. Cross contamination with E.coli can cause illness not only in animals, but in humans as well.How is the Harvard Food Pyramid different?bottom of the pyramid - the base of healthy eating is exercise, watching your weight, and portion control. Yes! These actions are the most important in terms of a healthy diet. They also give suggestions on the protein level of the diagram. There are nuts, tofu, beans, and seeds! The red meat is ALL the way at the top in the "use sparingly" column. And, they put optional: "alcohol in moderation" on the side instead of "dairy". Now, that is my kinda pyramid.albedothe proportion of the incident light or radiation that is reflected by a surface, typically that of a planet or moon. (ice and snow has high albedo)aquifera body of permeable rock that can contain or transmit groundwater.watershedan area or ridge of land that separates waters flowing to different rivers, basins, or seas.teratogenan agent or factor that causes malformation of an embryo.carcinogena substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue.neurotoxina poison that acts on the nervous system.mutagenan agent, such as radiation or a chemical substance, that causes genetic mutation.endocrine hormone disrupterEndocrine disruptors are chemicals that can interfere with endocrine (or hormone) systems at certain doses. These disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders. Any system in the body controlled by hormones can be derailed by hormone disruptors.gyrein oceanography is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.What and where is the Great Pacific Ocean garbage patch?The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is a collection of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. Marine debris is litter that ends up in oceans, seas, and other large bodies of water. The Great Pacific Garbage Patch, also known as the Pacific trash vortex, spans waters from the West Coast of North America to Japan.Bald eagles and DDT story: how did it endanger themImage result for how did ddt endangered bald eagles Bald eagles, in turn, were poisoned with DDT when they ate the contaminated fish. The chemical interfered with the ability of the birds to produce strong eggshells. ... By 1963, with only 487 nesting pairs of bald eagles remaining, the species was in danger of extinctionwhat is biomagnificationthe concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of its ingesting other plants or animals in which the toxins are more widely disbursed.what are 3 greenhouse gasescarbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxidewhat causes greenhouse gasesCoal burned in power stations contains carbon which combines with oxygen in the atmosphere to form carbon dioxide. The man-made (or anthropogenic) component of the greenhouse effect is caused by man's activities that emit greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The most important of these is the burning of fossil fuels.which is the worst greenhouse gascarbon dioxideMontreal and Kyoto Protocols : what did each regulate?Montreal Protocol, formally Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, international treaty, adopted in Montreal on Sept. 16, 1987, that aimed to regulate the production and use of chemicals that contribute to the depletion of Earth's ozone layer. The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) human-made CO2 emissions have caused it.point and nonpoint source examples of water pollutionNPS pollution is caused by rainfall or snowmelt moving over and through the ground. As the runoff moves, it picks up and carries away natural and human-made pollutants, finally depositing them into lakes, rivers, wetlands, coastal waters and ground Point source pollution is defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as "any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe..." Examples of point sources include: discharges from wastewater treatment plants; operational wastes from industries; and.where is most of the freshwater on earthAccording to the U.S. Geological Survey, most of that three percent is inaccessible. Over 68 percent of the fresh water on Earth is found in icecaps and glaciers, and just over 30 percent is found in ground water. Only about 0.3 percent of our fresh water is found in the surface water of lakes, rivers, and swamps.Nov 12, 2012what household activity uses the most waterOn average, our direct indoor water use (water you use from your tap, toilet, dishwasher, etc.) adds up to about 60 gallons of water a day per person. Here's how indoor water use breaks down: Toilets (28 percent) Washing Machines (22 percent)What is xeriscaping and what is used?Xeriscaping is landscaping and gardening that reduces or eliminates the need for supplemental water from irrigation. ... In some areas, terms as water-conserving landscapes, drought-tolerant landscaping, and smart scaping are used insteadwhat is placer miningPlacer mining (/ˈplæsər/ or /ˈpleɪsər/) is the mining of stream bed (alluvial) deposits for minerals. This may be done by open-pit (also called open-cast mining) or by various surface excavating equipment or tunnelling equipment.what is mountain top removal miningMountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain. Coal seams are extracted from a mountain by removing the land, or overburden, above the seams. ... The practice of mountaintop removal mining has been controversial.what is strip mining to get coal"Strip mining" is the practice of mining a seam of mineral, by first removing a long strip of overlying soil and rock (the overburden). It is most commonly used to mine coal and lignite (brown coal). Strip mining is only practical when the ore body to be excavated is relatively near the surface.what is frackingthe process of injecting liquid at high pressure into subterranean rocks, boreholes, etc., so as to force open existing fissures and extract gas or oilwhy is fracking harmful to the environmentFracking's Environmental Impacts: Water. The hydraulic fracturing process poses multiple threats to water supplies. ... Underground water supplies can also be contaminated by fracking, through migration of gas and frack fluid underground.what is the difference between a mineral and a rockA mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic compound with a unique chemical structure and physical properties. A rock is a solid, stony mass composed of a combination of minerals or other organic compounds. For example, quartz and feldspars are minerals, but when formed together, they make a rock,why are extracted metals not minerals anymoreBecause once they are purified they are no longer crystalline.what is smelting to remove metals from oresextract (metal) from its ore by a process involving heating and melting.what was pangeaPangaea or Pangea (pronunciation: /pænˈdʒiːə/) was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras. It assembled from earlier continental units approximately 335 million years ago, and it began to break apart about 175 million years ago.what happened at the gold king mine in colorado in august 2015On August 5, 2015, EPA was conducting an investigation of the Gold King Mine near Silverton, Colorado, to: assess the on-going water releases from the mine, treat mine water, and assess the feasibility of further mine remediation. While excavating above the old adit, pressurized water began leaking above the mine tunnel, spilling about three million gallons of water stored behind the collapsed material into Cement Creek, a tributary of the Animas River. EPA takes responsibility for the Gold King Mine release and is committed to continue working hand-in-hand with the impacted local governments, states and tribesCase Study: The problem with mountain top removal coal mining in West Virginia. Why is it a problem? Can it be easily put back together and reclaimed?he forceful blasting from mountaintop removal often occurs close to homes, and at all times of the day. Drinking water wells and building foundations crack from the sheer force of the explosions, significantly depreciating property values, which is often a family's most substantial asset. Communities are blanketed in dust, and sometimes pelted by rocks ranging from pebble to boulder size. Sometimes the "flyrock" injures, or kills. On August 20, 2004, a bulldozer pushed a boulder weighing half a ton from a mountaintop removal site in Appalachia, Virginia. The falling boulder crashed into the side of a residence, crushing 3 year-old Jeremy Davidson in his sleep.What is the 1977 SMRCA Act?The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) is the primary federal law that regulates the environmental effects of coal mining in the United States. SMCRA created two programs: one for regulating active coal mines and a second for reclaiming abandoned mine lands.Look at the facts for recycling aluminum cans and other things—what item do we recycle most in America?lead acid batteriesWhat mineral do we get aluminum from for cans?Aluminium cans and foil are made from a material called bauxite. Tin cans are made from steel and coated in tin. Steel comes from the iron rich minerals like goethite, and tin comes from cassiterite.Rare Earth metals group study: Why does China dominate the market? What is coltan and what are three problems mining it? Do you own anything having a rare earth metal in it?Coltan (short for columbite-tantalite and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted. The niobium-dominant mineral in coltan is columbite (after niobium's original American name, columbium), and the tantalum-dominant mineral is tantalite.geothermal (geysers), biomass, solar, wind, hydroelectric are the five renewable energies, photovoltaic cell, fossil fuels are non renewable energiesdurhome energy auditsA home energy audit, also known as a home energy assessment, is the first step to assess how much energy your home consumes and to evaluate what measures you can take to make your home more energy efficient. An assessment will show you problems that may, when corrected, save you significant amounts of money over time.how much of our energy comes from the five alt. renewable energies?Renewables make up only 11% of U.S. powerhow much from nuclear energy in the USU.S. electricity from nuclear energy in 2016: 19.7 percent, with 805.3 billion kilowatt-hours generated. Number of states with operating reactors: 30. Nuclear plants made up the largest percentage of the electricity generated in 2016 in six states.how much energy comes from the three fossil fuelsBetween 2013 and 2040, natural gas consumption is expected to increase by 13.4 percent and coal consumption by 5.6 percent.[xv] The EIA foresees fossil fuels maintaining their status as America's leading source of energy consumption between now and 2040, supplying 80 percent of our nation's energy needs in 2040.what are the fossil fuelscoal, oil and natural gaswhat are the five renewableswind, solar, biomass, geothermal energy, hydroelectricwhat are the disadvantages of wind, solar, nuclearwind: must have windy area the turbine is expensive Hard to find trained repairmen Kills many birds, particularly raptors solar: Expensive at first to install the panels. nuclear: One of the most difficult problems associated with nuclear power is the disposal of wastes produced during mining, fuel production, and reactor operation. How these wastes are managed may ultimately be the overriding obstacle to nuclear power.what is biomass energyBiomass is fuel that is developed from organic materials, a renewable and sustainable source of energy used to create electricity or other forms of power.What are Tesla's plans?Tesla Motors announced it is going to sell solar roof tiles that are customizable and meant to look like a traditional roof. The glass tiles in four styles have photovoltaic cells which are invisible from the street. They power a home when integrated with Tesla's Powerwall storage unit.What is a landfill? Are they always sanitarya place to dispose of refuse and other waste material by burying it and covering it over with soil, especially as a method of filling in or extending usable land. not alwaysWhat is the waste stream?A waste stream is the complete flow of waste from domestic or industrial areas through to final disposal. The intervention of recycling may act to lessen the content of a waste stream as it moves down the line.How much waste is landfilled in the United States?For the same year, EPA estimated the figure to be 135 million tons. The Yale team calculated that in 2013, waste sent to landfills rose to 294 million tons. With 316 million people, that comes to 1,871 pounds per person in that year, the last for which there are figuresHow much waste do we produce in a year in billions ?Every year we dump a massive 2.12 billion tons of waste.what is the difference between recycling and reusing products?The term "recycle" refers to the process in which an item or its components are used to create something new. ... Glass and aluminum are other commonly recycled materials. Recycling is technically a form of reusing, but it refers more specifically to items that are discarded and broken down into their raw materials.How do you know what kind of plastic a recyclable is?if it has PET or PE HD symbolWhat is curbside recycling?Kerbside collection, or curbside collection, is a service provided to households, typically in urban and suburban areas of removing household waste. It is usually accomplished by personnel using purpose built vehicles to pick up household waste in containers acceptable to or prescribed by the municipality.green roofA green roof or living roof is a roof of a building that is partially or completely covered with vegetation and a growing medium, planted over a waterproofing membrane. It may also include additional layers such as a root barrier and drainage and irrigation systems.cap and tradeEmissions trading or cap and trade is a government-mandated, market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants.citizen sciencethe collection and analysis of data relating to the natural world by members of the general public, typically as part of a collaborative project with professional scientists.urban sprawlthe uncontrolled expansion of urban areas.EISAn environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environmentWhat is Smart Growth?planned economic and community development that attempts to curb urban sprawl and worsening environmental conditions.What are Environmental Impact statements (EIS) and what Act created them?An environmental impact statement (EIS), under United States environmental law, is a document required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for certain actions "significantly affecting the quality of the human environment". An EIS is a tool for decision making.