AP WORLD HISTORY JHHS SEMESTER 2 FINAL
Terms in this set (85)
The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name.
mass dispersion of peoples from Africa during the Transatlantic Slave Trades, from the 1500s to the 1800s. This Diaspora took millions of people from Western and Central Africa to diﬀerent regions throughout the Americas and the Caribbean.
African National Congress
the Republic of South Africa's governing social democratic political party
was a Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death. He was the third ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India
was a system of institutionalised racial segregation and discrimination in South Africa between 1948 and 1991.
Ashoka was an ancient Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from c. 268 to 232 BCE.
were a revolutionary wave in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. It was associated with the Atlantic World during the era from the 1770s to the 1820s.
was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to 200 million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe in the years 1346-1353.
was a violent anti-foreign and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, towards the end of the Qing dynasty.
was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
in Spanish-speaking regions a military or political leader.
Code of Hammurabi
is a well-preserved Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia, dating back to about 1754 BC (Middle Chronology). It is one of the oldest deciphered writings of significant length in the world.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries
the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479 BCE), who considered himself a retransmitter of the values of the Zhou dynasty golden age of several centuries before.
philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao
He was the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 until his retirement in 1989.
Christian boys were recruited by force to serve the Ottoman government. The boys were generally taken from the Balkan provinces, converted to Islam, and then passed through a series of examinations to determine their intelligence and capabilities.
a legislative body in the ruling assembly of Russia and of some other republics of the former Soviet Union.
East India Company
was an English and later British joint-stock company
was a labor system, rewarding conquerors with the labor of particular groups of people. It was first established in Spain
the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles,
is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors in China
Ancient Mesopotamia, Indus River Value
Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world.
Great Leap Forward
was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.
a large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties.
was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War
The empire existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian subcontinent
ancient Greek history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC
was a medieval Moroccan traveller and scholar, who is widely recognised as one of the greatest travellers of all time
elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first standing army in Europe. The corps was most likely established during the reign of Murad I
is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until Pakistan's creation on 14 August 1947, and then as Pakistan's first Governor-General until his death
a German philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. wrote and published many works during his life, the most well-known being the 1848 pamphlet
was an Iranian Shia Muslim religious leader, philosopher, revolutionary and politician.
Little Ice Age
a period between about 1300 and 1870 during which Europe and North America were subjected to much colder winters than during the 20th century
Mandate of Heaven
the idea that there could be only one legitimate ruler of China at a time, and that this ruler had the blessing of the gods
was a Venetian merchant traveller. His travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde, a book that described to Europeans the wealth and great size of China, its capital Peking, and other Asian cities and countries
was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of June 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II
was an English writer, philosopher, and advocate of women's rights. During her brief career, she wrote novels, treatises, a travel narrative, a history of the French Revolution, a conduct book, and a children's book. Wikipedia
was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between c. 322 and 187 BCE.
was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas
the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.
In this system all the people worked for government for a certain period. This labor was free to government. During Inca period people were needed to work only 65 days to provide food for his family
a pre-Inca culture that flourished on the northern coast of Peru in the 1st to 7th centuries AD
existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire stretched from Central Europe to the Sea of Japan
was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin from Central Asia
a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and founder of the Republic of Turkey, serving as its first President from 1923 until his death in 1938
an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European states based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949
was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999
sometimes called the Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making possible an increasingly larger population.
an international organization (group of countries) who do not want to be officially aligned (friends) with or against any major power bloc (group of countries
the first major civilization in Guatemala and Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco and modern southwestern pacific lowlands of Guatemala
two wars in the mid-19th century involving Anglo-Chinese disputes over British trade in China and China's sovereignty
was an empire founded at the end of the thirteenth century in northwestern Anatolia in the vicinity of Bilecik and Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman
civilization situated on the East Mediterranean coastal part of the Fertile Crescent
it was the major supply of silver for Spain during the period of the New World Spanish Empire
was a schism from the Roman Catholic Church initiated by Martin Luther
pair of revolutions in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union
was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history. The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the so-called gunpowder empires
Scramble for Africa
the invasion, occupation, division, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism
was a major, but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857-58 against British rule
was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers
the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868. The head of government was the shogun, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan.
articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator
was an ancient network of trade routes that were for centuries central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent
was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela
ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society
was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953 he was effectively the dictator of the state
generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy
a period of reformation in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876
was a Mexica (city-state) located on an island in Lake Texcoco, in the Valley of Mexico. Founded on June 20, 1325, it became the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century
A city of central Mali near the Niger River northeast of Bamako. Founded in the 11th century by the Tuareg, it became a major trading center (primarily for gold and salt) and a center of Islamic learning by the 14th century
travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant. While existing from prehistoric times, the peak of trade extended from the 8th century until the early 17th century.
the network of trade and foreign relations between China and its tributaries, which helped to shape much of East Asian affairs
an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation
the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed
Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism
World Trade Organization
an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade
a political reform movement in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers. They favoured the replacement of the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government
was a Hui Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty.
the re-establishment and the development and protection of a Jewish nation in what is now Israel.