2017 Unit 3 AOS 2 - Chapter 7: Responding to antigens

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Adaptive immunity
An immune response that is specific to a particular antigen
Agglutination
The process in which antibodies bind to antigens on the surface of cells and form antigen
Allergen
An antigen that elicits an allergic response
Antibody
Proteins produced by plasma cells that are highly selective for, and bind to, specific antigen molecules
Antigen
A substance that reacts with antibodies and T lymphocyte receptors
Antigen-antibody complex
A specific chemical interaction between an antibody molecule and an antigen molecule
Antigen presentation
The presentation of antigens by antigen-presenting cells
Antigen-presenting cell (APC)
A cell that uses MHC-II on its surface to present foreign antigens to helper T lymphocytes to elicit an adaptive immune response
Antigenic variation
The mechanism of changing surface antigens, usually to avoid detection or an immune attack
Bacterium
All prokaryotes not members of the domain Archaea
Cell-mediated immunity
An immune response that is mediated by T lymphocytes
Cellular pathogen
Cellular organisms that are a source of non-self antigens and cause disease
Chemokine
Cytokines that attract white blood cells to the site of infection
Clonal selection
The theory that in a group of lymphocytes, a specific antigen will activate only the lymphocyte that has a receptor that specifically recognises it
Complement proteins
Proteins that are able to kill foreign cells by lysis
Constant region
The region of antibody molecules that remains the same and interacts with receptors on the body's cells
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte
T lymphocyte that is stimulated by cytokines to bind to antigen-MHC I complexes on infected host cells and release cytotoxic compounds that destroy the infected cells
Defensin
Molecules active against bacteria, fungi and certain viruses
Differentiation
The modification of the structure and function of a cell that occurs during its development.
Fever
An increase in body temperature that results from the regulated body temperature set point in the hypothalamus of the brain being set to a higher level by inflammatory cytokines, to slow the replication of bacteria and improve the adaptive immune response.
Fungus
Non-phototrophic eukaryotes that have rigid cell walls made from chitin.
Heavy chains
The polypeptide chain that forms the stem of a Y-shaped antibody molecule.
Helper T lymphocyte
Bind to antigen-MHC II complexes on antigen-presenting cells and activate B lymphocytes to secrete antibodies, macrophages to phagocytose, and cytoxic T cells to kill infected cells.
Histamine
An organic compound involved in inflammatory responses and allergic reactions, which causes surface blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable to immune cells and fluids.
Human leukocyte antigen
Another name for major histocompatibility complex in humans.
Humoral immunity
An immune response involving B lymphocytes that produce specific antibodies against foreign antigens.
Immunogen
Antigens that elicit an immune response.
Immunoglobulin (Ig)
Alternate name for an antibody; a type of protein produced by B lymphocytes in an immune response to the presence of a particular antigen, to which the immunoglobulin binds.
Immunological memory
The ability of lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system to remember antigens after primary exposure, and to mount a larger and more rapid response when exposed to the same antigen again.
Inflammation
A protective response triggered by damaged tissue or invading pathogens, that leads to increased blood flow and migration of white blood cells to the site of damage/infection.
Innate immunity
It non-specifically protects against a wide variety of pathogens. It consists of physical, chemical and microbiological barriers that provide resistance to infection, and an innate immune response to infection that involves phagocytes and defensive molecules.
Leukocyte
White blood cells; includes phagocytes and lymphocytes
Light chain
The short polypeptide chains that form the arms of a Y-shaped antibody molecule.
Lymph
A colourless fluid that contains white blood cells, bathes tissues, and travels through the lymphatic system, draining into the bloodstream.
Lymphatic system
The body's system that transports immune cells including antigen-presenting cells throughout the body, and is where antigen recognition by lymphocytes occurs.
Lymphocyte
A type of leukocyte involved in adaptive immune responses.