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143 terms

Veterinary Laboratory Procedures

What does OSHA stand for?
Occupational Safety and Health Administration
What type of microscopes do most labs use?
What are the two types of lens systems?
1. Ocular
2. Objective
The ocular system is located in the eyepieces. They magnify an image _ on their own.
Which lens magnifies 4X?
Which lens magnifies 40X?
High Dry
Which lens magnifies 100X?
Oil Immersion
Which lens magnifies 10X?
Low Power
What type of oil should never be used with the oil immersion objective?
What is the formula for total magnification?
Ocular magnification (10X) X Objective magnification
How will an object appear when you look into the scope?
Upside down and reversed
When the stage is moved to the left, the object appears to move to the _.
The light is focused by raising or lowering the _.
What is used to separate substances of different densities that are in a solution?
When solids and liquids are present, the solid is called the sediment and the liquid is called the _.
What type of centrifuge is "swinging arm"? The specimen cups hang vertically at rest and swing out horizontally when spinning.
What type of centrifuge has tubes held at a fixed angle? Can only hold one tube size and must be balanced.
Angled Centrifuge Head
How should you load the centrifuge?
Open ends toward the center
What is another name for the Total Solids Meter? Used to measure the refractive index of a solution (tells you the concentration of solid material in a liquid).
What is used to calibrate the refractometer?
Distilled water
What does sp stand for on a refractometer?
What does ug stand for on a refractometer?
What is used to measure various chemical levels in the blood?
Chemistry Analyzers
What measures the amount of light transmitted through a solution? The degree of color change is proportional to the solution's concentration.
_ machines use reagent impregnated strips, slides, or pads. The color change is read on the pad, strip, or slide.
What machines count the number of red blood cells, white blood cells & platelets?
Hematology Analyzer
What machine has the cells pass through an aperture that measures the size of the cells & then counts them as certain cell types based on that size?
Impedance Analyzer
What temperature should an incubator maintain?
38° C (98.6° F)
What are the two main types of pipettes?
1. Transfer
2. Graduated
What type of pipette is used to measure a liquid?
What type of pipette is useful when exact measurements are not needed?
The magnitude of random errors & the reproducibility of results.
How closely results agree with the true value of the constituent.
Accuracy & Precision
Errors that happen before you run the test.
Errors that occur during analysis.
What does blood do?
1. Carries oxygen to tissue
2. Carries carbon dioxide away from tissue
3. Carries nutrients to tissue
What are leukocytes?
White Blood Cells
What are erythrocytes?
Red Blood Cells
What are thrombocytes?
The liquid portion of the blood that the cells are suspended in. It makes up 45 - 78% of blood.
What is blood that has not clotted? It is either in circulation or it has an anticoagulant added.
Whole blood
A chemical that when added to whole blood prevents or delays clotting.
What anticoagulant is used when chemical testing is performed? It is not good for whole blood.
What anticoagulant is used when hematologic studies are done because it does not interfere with morphology?
_ is plasma minus fibrinogen. To get this sample you need to allow the blood to clot & then centrifuge it down.
What color tube contains EDTA?
What color tube contains a gel that helps separate serum?
Marble/Tiger top
What color tube contains no additives?
What color tube contains Heparin?
Where do you collect blood from to test blood gas levels?
_ samples are taken after a patient has eaten.
What does PCV stand for?
Packed Cell Volume
Where should the PCV ideally be between?
37 - 55%
What are the two types of microhematocrit tubes?
1. Red (heparinized)
2. Blue (plain)
The _ is read at the top of the RBC layer.
What does a low PCV indicate?
What does an increased PCV indicate?
1. Dehydration
2. Splenic contraction
What does deep yellow plasma indicate?
What does red/pink plasma indicate?
What does cloudy plasma indicate?
_ plasma protein levels indicate overhydration, renal disease, gastrointestinal problems, or a diseased liver.
_ plasma protein levels indicate dehydration or inflammation.
What does TS stand for?
Total Solids
What does TP stand for?
Total Protein
Blood smear: What should you look for in the feathered edge?
1. Heartworm
2. Platelet clumping
What is stain one? It fixes the slide and the slide should stay in this stain for at least 5 minutes.
95% Methanol
What color is stain two? It stains the RBCs. Dip the slide 25 times in stain two, allowing it to sit in the stain for 1 second between dips.
What color is stain three? It stains the nuclei of the cells. Dip the slide 10 times, but don't let the slide sit in the stain between dips.
Dark purple
What objective do you use to look for heartworms on a blood smear?
What objective do you use to look at WBCs on a blood smear?
What is the normal lifespan of canine erythrocytes?
110 - 122 days
What is the normal lifespan of feline erythrocytes?
68 days
What is a variation in blood cell size?
What is a variation in blood cell shape?
_ erythrocytes have a distinct area of central pallor. That means that when you stain them, the very center of the cell doesn't take up stain.
In canines the presence of _ indicates an immune mediated hemolytic anemia.
There are _ types of white blood cells.
The _ nucleus is horse shoe shaped and lobulated. They contain enzymes that destroy bacteria and viruses. It is a granulocyte.
What is the lifespan of a neutrophil?
6 - 7 hours
_ are associated with allergic and parasitic type reactions. They have red/light pink granules.
A _ neutrophil is young.
A _ neutrophil is old.
Hyper segmented
A _ neutrophil is mature. It has 3 - 5 segments.
_ are associated with allergy based reactions. The granules stain blue. Very rare cell.
_ are the largest WBCs. The cytoplasm stains gray & contains vacuoles. They ingest or eat cellular debris in the body. It is a agranulocyte.
What do monocytes become once they enter tissue?
_ are the second most common WBC. The cytoplasm is very light blue and the nucleus is large and round. They are associated with antibody production. It is a agranulocyte.
How many WBCs do you count during a differential?
What color cap does a 25 gauge needle have?
What color cap does a 22 gauge needle have?
What color cap does a 18 gauge needle have?
What should you never do to whole blood?
Freeze it
Refrigerate whole blood samples that have not been tested within _ of collection.
1 hour
What is the light blue top tube used for?
Coagulation studies
What is the red top tube used for?
Chemistry with serum
What is the lavender/purple top tube used for?
CBC; Whole blood studies
What is the green top tube used for?
Chemistry with plasma
What is the gray top tube used for?
Test for glucose
What does EDTA stand for?
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
What color tube contains oxalates & citrates?
Light blue
What color tube contains sodium fluoride?
The production of blood cells & platelets.
The production of leukocytes.
The production of erythrocytes.
The production of platelets.
What is EPO?
Where is EPO produced?
What test contains the following components: total RBC count, PCV, plasma protein concentration, total WBC count, blood film examination (WBC differential, RBC & WBC morphology, platelet estimation), hemoglobin concentrations, erythrocyte indices & a reticulocyte count when the patient is anemic?
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
What system is used to do a manual CBC?
Manual CBC: _ cells touching the top or left lines.
Manual CBC: _ cells touching the bottom or right lines.
Don't count
What color does plasma appear?
Clear to pale yellow
What does MCV stand for? It is the measure of the average size of the erythrocytes.
Mean Corpuscular Volume
What is the unit of volume for MCV?
What is the formula for MCV?
MCV = PCV/RBC x 10
What does MCH stand for?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin
What is the formula for MCH?
MCH = Hb(g/dl)/RBC x 10
What does MCHC stand for?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration
What is the formula for MCHC?
MCHC = Hb(g/dl)/PCV% x 100
Decreased number of cells in the blood.
Increased number of cells in the blood.
-philia or -cytosis
Increased number of immature neutrophils in the blood.
Left shift
Neoplastic cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A condition that can be mistaken for leukemia. Characterized by marked leukocytosis & is usually the result of an inflammatory condition.
Leukemoid response
What WBC has pale pink cytoplasm with granules and a 3 - 5 lobe nucleus? Most numerous WBCs.
What is the WBC that is equivalent to the Neutrophil in avians, reptiles, etc?
Immature neutrophil with a horseshoe shaped nucleus?
What WBC has light blue cytoplasm and may contain pinkish-purple granules? 2nd most common WBC. Associated with antibody production.
What WBC has blue-gray cytoplasm, vacuoles and pink granules? Eat cellular debris. Largest WBC.
What WBC has a segmented nucleus & contains blue granules in the cytoplasm? Very rare cells associated with allergic reactions.
What WBC has a segmented nucleus & contains red granules in the cytoplasm? Associated with allergic reactions. Usually only 1 or 2 found.
Neutrophil with 5 or more lobes.
Large numbers of what cells can indicate leukemia?
_ RBCs are round with no central pallor.
_ RBCS have a biconcave disk shape with a distinct area of central pallor.
Grouping of RBCs in stacks. Normal in equine & feline blood. Artifact in refrigerated blood.
_ occurs in immune-mediated disorders. Can be confused with rouleaux.
How to differentiate agglutination from rouleaux: Add a drop of saline to the slide. If _, the cells will disperse.
Variation in the size of RBCs.
Variation in the shape of RBCs.
Large RBCs that stain a different color (usually bluish to bluish-red). Patients with altered lipid metabolism (liver disease).
Macrocytic polychromasia
Irregular spiculated RBCs, multiple & variable in size projections. Patients with altered lipid metabolism (liver disease).