Defeated by William of Normandy at the Battle of Hastings
Patrarch's novel _____ depicts the _________ wars
Two main advocates of civic humanism
Lorenzo the Magnificant was a ruler of ___
Gattamelata and Borteolommeo were mercenary generals otherwise known as
Petrarch inspired _____ to collect ancient manuscripts.
Discovered the Donation of Constantine was a fraud
Dominican preacher railed against the luxury and corruption of the Medici age, burned at the stake by Pope Alexander VI.
Treaty of ____ in 1454 was an alliance of northern Italian city states, Florence, Milan, and Venice against the Papal states and Naples.
Spanish House of Argon
Ruled Kingdom of Naples....Sicily during the 15th century
In 1494 Which French King lay claim to the throne of Naples and Invaded Italy
IN 1499 the Successor to the French King of the 1494 Naples Invasion, invaded Italy to seize Milan.
IN 1527, _____ forces sacked Rome out of frustration that their pay day had long been delayed.
Machiavelli The Discourses
______'s 1531 historical entitled ______ identifies representative government as ideal, and previously wrote that citizen soldiers are superior to mercenaries.
Wrote the Oration of the Dignity of Man
Mirandola was a student of
An italian short term partnership in which an investor would contribute capital while the recipient would commence the actual commercial activity.
Prominent dutch rennaisannce painter famous for his scenes of devils tormenting people
Italic block letters for the printing press were done by
Famous german artist known for woodcuts and metal plate carvings
A movement known as the Modern devotion was inspired by what German mystic.
The modern devotion was preached by this dutch laymen who's followers found the Breathern of Common life.
Wrote the Imitation of Christ
He prepared a Greek edition of the New testiment with a commentary and Latin translation that corrected errors in St. Jeromes Vulgate.
English statesmen who wrote Utopia.
German humanist, _____ advocated the study of languages for a better understanding of scripture. Published a Hebrew grammar and ultimately convinced HRE Maximilian I to reject the Inquistions call to burn the Talmud
Said God has given us the papacy now let us enjoy it.
Leo X authorized Dominican preacher _____ to sell indulgences
Wrote the 95 theses condemning the sale of indulgences.
Diet of Worms
Luther was excommunicated in 1521, and refused to recant at the ___
Frederick the elector of Saxony
In addition to other German princes siding with Luther, this prince that protected Luther from being burned at the stake.
Wrote bitter polemics against the Jews after discovering they would not convert
Diet of Speyer
Compromise which allowed Lutherans to worship as they pleased, reversed just 3 years later.
Ausburg Confession, Charles V
A 1530 creed drawn up by the reformer Melanchthon as a conciliatory gesture. The document was drafted in response to a request from HRE ____ to explain their convictions as he tried to drum up support to suppress the Turkish invasion.
Peace of Ausburg
Allowed the 300 states within the Holy Roman empire to choose their religion.
Swiss reformer who pursuaded the Zurich town council to reject the authority of the pope, to abolish Catholic practices, reject transsubstantiation.
Swiss reformer that rejected both transubstantiation and cosubstantiation, his followers ultimately went to war with the Swiss Cantons, resulting in the death of the reformer in the Battle of ____
The anabaptists participated in the _____ of 1525 led by John of Lieden and later seized the town of _______ where they established New Zion
Two defining beliefs of anabaptists
French theologan who established a theocracy in Geneva Switzerland and established the Reformed tradition.
This french theologian had _____ executed for rejecting the trinity.
Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion stressed utter dependence on mercy and taught the doctrine of double
Calvins followers in France were called
Founded the Presbyterian Church in Scotland
Henry VIII, Clement VII
The reformation in England arose not from theological differences but from a skirmish between _____ and Pope ______ over denying the kings request for an annulment from Catherine of Aragon.
The pope which denied the English kings annulment request was a virtual prisoner of _____, the nephew of Catherine.
In addition to divorcing Cathrine and seizing the church property, closing monasteries, and requiring an oath of supremacy from his followers, he also married ____. However, church doctorine didn't change until his successors took over.
Paul III, Trent
Pope _____ most important action was to initiate the Council of _______ which met 3 times between 1545 and 1563 to answer the issues raised by the Protestants.
Religious order founded by Ignatius, for which he wrote a meditation manual entitled Spiritual Exercises.
St. Teresa of Avila
The _____order was rejuvinated by the mystic ____ and her disciple, St. John of the Cross.
Also known as the Holy Office, _____ which published an Index of Prohibited Books
Turkish Ottoman ruler _____ the _____ seized Constantinople in 1453.
Suleiman, Vienna 1529
This Ottoman ruler captured Serbia and Hungary at the Battle of Mohacs and later layed seige to ______ in _____
Duchy of Burgundy, Bold
_____________extended along the eastern border of France, from Switzerland to Flanders and became a threatening powerful centralized state headed by Charles the _____
Francis I of France fought four wars against Charles v known as the _____ Wars.
In a desparate bid to save France, Francis I made an alliance with the
The treaty of Cateau Cambresis between the Valois and the Hasburgs for control of ____ was signed in ___
The war of the roses between the House of ___ and _____ ended with the House of _____ triumphant.
Bosworth Field Richard III of York
Henry ____ established England as a new monarchy after his victory at ____ against _____
Henry VII established the Court of the ___ to try nobles without a jury and allowing torture to extract confessions.
Thomas Cromwell and Cardinal Wolsey served the monarchy of
The first grand inquisitor of the Spanish inquisition was dominican Tomas de
The spanish Jews who had converted to Christianity but were suspected of secretly practicing Judaism
Spanish Muslim converts suspected of secret practice
The reform of the Catholic Church in Spain was headed by Cardinal
HRE Charles V, was Ferdinand's grandson, known as ______ of Spain before becoming HRE
Philip II, Ferdianand I
Charles V, weary of wars divided his empire, larger than even Charlemagne, between his sons ______ who got Spain and the Netherlands, and ____ who got the Imperial title
Prince Henry the Navigator, prince of Portugal started his explorations with the capture of ___ across the Straight of Gibraltar.
In 1488 _____ of Portugal crossed the equator and rounded the Cape of Good Hope.
Vasco da Gama
Portugese explorer that first sailed to India and back in 1499.
Protugese explorer who claimed Brazil
_____ conquered the Aztec empire
_______ conquered the Inca empire
Portuguese explorer crossed the Isthmus of Panama and discovered the Pacific ocean
Spanish colonists forced native populations to work for them on estates granted by the Spanish King known as _____.
Bartolome de _____ campaigned against the harsh ______ treatment of the new world natives
German Cartographer which named the new continents in his 1516 map.
English King Henry VIII hired _____ to seek a direct route to Asia through North America.
Landed on the west coast of North America and claimed it for Queen Elizibeth. Knighted on his ship the Golden Hind.
French explorer that open the St. Lawrence River valley for French colonization.
Champlain founded a French trading post at ____ in 1608.
The most successful of the entreprenurial families were the _____ of ____ who began as cloth merchants and came to dominant mining in Central Europe. They served as bankers for the Hapsburgs
Concordat of 1516
Francis I, the French monarchy acquired control over the Gallican church through the ___ whereby the papacy allowed French kings to appoint their own Bishops.
Broad systematic persecution of the French Huguenots started under the reign
_____ caused the purge of several thousand Huguenots in the St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre.
Henry of Navarre
Huguenot leader who inherited the throne and establashed the Bourbons as a royal dynasty.
Henry IV Edict of Nantes
King ______ converted to Catholicism in order to placate his subjects remarking "Paris is worth a Mass) but protected his Calvinist subjects though the _____
Chief minister of of Louis XIII who subdued the Huguenot bastion of La Rouchelle. He increased military spending, curbed the power of the nobility, and was willing to make alliances with protestant leaders in order to weaken the Hapsburgs
Introduced the Inquistion into the Netherlands
William the Silent, Prince of Orange
Rebellion in Netherlands over the Inquistion was led by ______
John of Austria
In 1571 Philip II sent his brother ____ to lead the Holy League against the Turks at ______ off the coast of Greece, freeing thousands of galley slaves.
Mary I of Tudor
______ briefly attempted to forcibly restore Catholicism in England
Act of Uniformity
English Parliment passed the _____ establishing the ceremonies of the Anglican Church, later passed the 39 Articles in 1559.
Provoked Guy Fawke's failed Gunpowder plot on 1605.
_____ led the Parlimentarians in the capture of Charles I which led to his beheading.
Treaty of ____ recognized Dutch Sovereignty.
30 years war
____ was started when the Bohemians revolted against their Catholic Hapsburg ruler and threw 2 imperial ministers out a window in the Defenestration of Prague in 1618.
2nd phase of the 30 years war.
Luthern king of Sweden which liberated the northern German cities from the Hapsburg occupation in the 30 years war
Peace of Prague
Agreement which ended the Swedish involvement in the 30 years war.
Treaty of ______ effectively eliminated the HRE as a meaningful poltical entity.
first proposed heliocentric theory
discovered elipitical planetary orbits based on the precise of observations of
Spanish physican that studied pulmonary circulation and was eventually executed for heresy by the Calvinists.
ridiculed European society in his tales about two giants.
Cervantes Don Quixoete
______ wrote ______ which depicts an idealistic nobleman who finds chivalry is useless in the modern world.
Ecstasy of St Teresa by ____ (Baroque)
Rubens and Rembrandt
Dutch masters of Baroque
____argued in his Republic (1576) that king should have to answer to no one.
_____argued in his 1651 ______ that human life in the state of nature is nasty, brutish and short and his only hope is absolute monarchy.
used natural law to outline principles of the just war in his book "On the law of war and Peace" in 1625.