35 terms

EOC Review - The Gilded Age Vocab

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Americanization
Belief that assimilating immigrants and American Indians into American society would make them more loyal citizens
Andrew Carnegie
United States steel industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts; a "robber barron," developed the steel industry.
anti-trust acts
laws to control monopoly power and preserve and promote competition
assimilate
to bring into conformity with the customs, attitudes, etc., of a group, nation, or the like; adapt or adjust - many Native Americans and immigrants were forced to "assimilate"
Captains of Industry
A name given company owners such as Carnegie and Rockefeller by people who believed they steered the economy into prosperity.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
corruption
dishonest or illegal actions for personal gain
entreprenuership
the ability and willingness to start, operate and assume the risk of a business venture in the hope of making a profit
foreign policy
A nation's overall plan for dealing with other nations
free enterprise
Economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference
Gilded Age
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
government regulations
the act of the government to control business behavior through a set of rules or laws
Great Plains
vast grassland between the mississippi river and the rocky mountains
Homestead Act
1862 - Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration.
immigrants
People who settle in a country they weren't born in.
industrialization
The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services.
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 law passed to regulate railroad and other interstate businesses
labor unions
An organization formed by workers to strive for better wages and working conditions
laissez-faire
Hands off. No government intervention in business.
monopolies
Companies that control all production of a good or service.
Native Americans
The indigenous people who were in America before Europeans "took over" the land
nativism
feelings of hostility for immigrants. It favored people or products that were American.
nativists
U.S. citizens who opposed immigration because they were suspicious of immigrants and feared losing jobs to them
philanthropy
charity; a desire or effort to promote goodness. Many of the captains of industry were involved in this to build their communities.
political bosses
Leaders of political machines that bribed citizens in order to receive votes
Pure Food and Drug Act
Halted the sale of contaminated foods and medicines and called for truth in labeling
railroads
Networks of iron (later steel) rails on which steam (later electric or diesel) locomotives pulled long trains at high speeds.
robber barons
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages.
settlement houses
Community centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrants
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting.
Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.
suffrage
The right to vote
The Jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Transcontinental Railroad
Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US
trusts
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly).
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