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Modern Environmental Movement
Terms in this set (39)
Meaning only one party supports the environmental movement. At the start was bi-______ meaning both parties supported it.
often credited with catalyzing the modern environmental movement.
Rachel Carson's best-selling book, published in 1962 called attention to the dangers of pesticides, which was often sprayed indiscriminately in order to kill insects.
• Home movies of kids running through fog of _____ as trucks drove around neighborhoods spraying it to kill pests demonstrated the level of trust and innocence people once had towards dangerous chemicals.
Summary of SS
• Carson's book educated Americans on the basic concepts of ecology, demonstrating that dangerous chemicals like DDT didn't just kill "targeted pests." Rather, DDT make its way up the food chain to destroy non-targeted species. Spraying insects, for example, may result in the death of birds that eat them; hence, you get a "silent spring."
DDT soon ______ after Silent Spring
"These sprays, dusts, and aerosols...have the power to kill every insect, the 'good' and the 'bad,' to still the song of birds and the leaping of fish in the streams, to coat the leaves with a deadly film, and to linger on in soil—all this though the intended target may be only a few weeds or insects. Can anyone believe it is possible to lay down such a barrage of poisons on the surface of the earth without making it unfit for all life?"
Clean Air Act (1963)
law developed regulations to protect the public from exposure to airborne contaminants that are known to be hazardous to human health. It was revised under Nixon, when the EPA was created and charged with enforcing it.
Person who signed Clean Air Act.
The Wilderness Act of 1964
• It set the definition for pristine wilderness, and offered such lands protection from development. It protected some 9 million acres of federal land.
Signed the Wilderness Act of 1964.
Earth Day (1970)
Proposed hoping to demonstrate popular political support for an environmental agenda.
Senator _________ of Wisconsin first proposed Earth Day
April 22, 1970
When the first Earth Day was held
As many as ______ Americans are estimated to have taken to the streets, parks, and auditoriums to demonstrate for a healthy, sustainable environment. Thousands of colleges and universities organized protests against the deterioration of the environment.
supported the celebrations, hoping it would make hippies like him.
A similar celebration was held in 1990, for the 20th anniversary of Earth Day.
The Environmental Protection Agency
EPA. Created by Nixon in 1970 and is charged with enforcing environmental regulations.It is led by an administrator, who is appointed by the President - and hence is often only as effective in enforcing environmental laws as the president wants it to be.
Clean Water Act of 1972
EPA would oversee the quality of the nation's water which was formerly trusted by the states before who had toxic water
Endangered Species Act of 1973
Nixon called on Congress to pass this act, and it was designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development." It also offers protection for the ecosystems in which they live.
The 1970s Economy/Environment
A major theme in the 1970s is "limits."
The environmental movement revealed the limits of human control over nature. Vietnam revealed the limits of American military power. And two oil crises in the 1970s, revealed our dependency on Middle Eastern oil, and hence, the limits of our economy.
Characterized the economy in the 1970s. started due to excessive government spending on the war in Vietnam.
two oil crises
Soon magnified inflation.
The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
People revealed dependency on ME oil when putting this on the United States to punish the U.S. for its support for Israel during the 1973 Yom Kippur War.
Congress responded by reducing the national speed limit to ______ to conserve fuel and Americans began to prefer fuel-efficient cars, while Detroit-based cars were rejected as "gas guzzlers."
Led to inflation (due to the cost of transportation going up). Prices of basic necessities, such as bread, milk, and canned goods rose by nearly 20% in 1974.
One of Carter's methods for energy conservation was to have multiple people in the same viehicle
Carter called for a national energy policy and encouraged the _______ of energy alternatives.
One of the energy alternatives Carter lists.
Following energy alternatives by installing these on top of the white house.
Carter's Conversation Speech
"I'm asking you for your good and for your Nation's security to take no unnecessary trips, to use carpools or public transportation whenever you can, to park your car one extra day per week, to obey the speed limit, and to set your thermostats to save fuel. Every act of energy conservation like this is more than just common sense -- I tell you it is an act of patriotism."
A solution to the energy crisis. Pleasant alternative because power plants produced no air pollutants.
Amount of power plants by 1974. Over 100 more planned.
Three Mile Island
Plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, where near meltdown of nuclear radiator occurred.
More than _______ people fled their homes because of disaster.
He marks the beginning of environmentalism becoming a partisan issue, which remains so to this day.
Environmental regulations were curtailed.
Reagan believed environmentalism had gone _____. He ripped the solar panels off the White House that had been installed by Carter, and de-funded investments into energy alternatives.
Who Reagan appointed be Secretary of Interior. (oversees the nation's natural resources) Watt was famously known for believing the world was going to come to an end soon, so we should use up all our resources now while we still can. Watt ultimately resigned in disgrace
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