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Terms in this set (24)
a condition marked by severe pain, pressure, squeezing in the chest (due to coronary heart disease) often also spreading to the shoulders, arms, and neck, caused by an inadequate blood supply to the heart
-Treatment: Treatment consists of beta blockers and antianginal medications
build-up of fats, cholesterol, and other substances (plaque) in and on the artery walls which can lead to hardening and block blood flow
Treatment consists of improved diet and exercise, medications, angioplasty
abnormally slow heart action which can cause dizziness, weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, chest pains, confusion or memory problems, easily tiring during physical activity
If bradycardia doesn't cause symptoms, it usually isn't treated. If damage to the heart's electrical system causes your heart to beat too slowly, you will probably need to have a pacemaker.
pressure on the heart that occurs when blood or fluid builds up in the space between the heart muscle and the outer covering sac of the heart. (Symptoms include low blood pressure, shortness of breath, and lightheadedness.)
Emergency treatment is required. Usually, a needle or small tube is used to drain excess fluid.
patent ductus arteriosus
Unclosed hole in aorta (small one may cause no symptoms, but a large one may cause poor eating, failure to thrive, or breathlessness.
treatments include monitoring, medications such as anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), and surgery.
A heart defect due to hole in a wall between the ventricles
Symptoms may include a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails, along with poor feeding, poor weight gain, and fast breathing.
Most holes close on their own, though many may need surgery or a catheter-based procedure to close the hole. Symptoms can be treated with blood pressure medicines or diuretics.
tetralogy of Fallot
A rare condition caused by a combination of four heart defects that are present at birth
Stenosed pulmonary valve - deformity on pulmonary valve
Truncus arteriosis - Aorta arising from both ventricles
Interventricular septal opening
Enlarged right ventricle
Surgical repair as soon as possible, vasodilators
Symptoms include blue-tinged skin and shortness of breath.
edema caused by excess fluid in the lungs.
Mild to extreme breathing difficulty can occur. Cough, chest pain, and fatigue are other symptoms.
Treatment generally includes supplemental oxygen and medications.
As blood vessels within the lungs become swollen with blood, the pressure causes leaking into the lung tissue, causing pulmonary edema (lung swelling). Peripheral congestion occurs when only the right side of the heart fails, causing blood to back up in the systemic system.
symptoms and treatment: same as pulmonary congestion
an alteration in the structure and function of the right ventricle (RV) of the heart caused by a primary disorder of the respiratory system (can be caused by long-term high blood pressure)
Fainting spells during activity, chest discomfort, usually in the front of the chest, chest pain, swelling of the feet or ankles, symptoms of lung disorders, such as wheezing or coughing, bluish lips and fingers (cyanosis)
is a sudden worsening of the signs and symptoms of heart failure, which typically includes difficulty breathing (dyspnea), leg or feet swelling, and fatigue.
Nitrates reduce left ventricular filling pressure primarily via venodilation.
an excitable group of cells that causes a premature heartbeat outside the normally functioning SA node of the heart
extra, abnormal heartbeats that begin in one of the heart's two lower chambers
often cause no symptoms. When symptoms occur, they feel like a flip-flop or skipped-beat sensation in the chest
an irregular, often rapid heart rate that commonly causes poor blood flow
This condition may have no symptoms, but when symptoms do occur they include palpitations, shortness of breath and fatigue.
an abnormal heart rhythm where the heart beats too slowly(bradycardia).
the electrical signals that tell the heart to contract are partially or totally blocked between the upper chambers (atria) and the lower chambers (ventricles)
fainting, dizziness or lightheadedness, fatigue, and shortness of breath.
it may be passing through a problem heart valve or a condition makes your heart beat faster and forces your heart to handle more blood quicker than normal
an abnormal heart murmur may cause no obvious other signs or symptoms, aside from the unusual sound your doctor hears when listening to your heart with a stethoscope
caused by stress and anxiety, or because you've had too much caffeine, nicotine, or alcohol
make you feel like your heart is beating too hard or too fast, skipping a beat or fluttering
occurs when the leaflets do not close completely, letting blood leak backward across the valve
shortness of breath and/or difficulty catching your breath, weakness, dizziness, chest pain, swelling in feet ankles or abdomen, rapid weight gain
mitral valve prolapse
improper closure of the valve between the heart's upper and lower left chambers
symptoms may include an irregular heartbeat, palpitations and shortness of breath
a blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle
symptoms include tightness or pain in the chest, neck, back, or arms, as well as fatigue, lightheadedness, abnormal heartbeat and anxiety. Women are more likely to have atypical symptoms than men
inflammation of the middle layer of the heart wall
symptoms include chest pain, abnormal heartbeat and shortness of breath
a swelling and irritation of the thin sac like membrane surrounding the heart (pericardium)
the most common symptom is sharp, stabbing chest pain that may travel to the left shoulder and neck. It usually begins suddenly but doesn't last long
the heart beats faster than normal while at rest
shortness of breath, lightheadedness, rapid pulse rate, heart palpitations, chest pain, fainting (syncope)
valves become too narrow and hardened to open fully
the heart may weaken, causing chest pain, fatigue, and shortness of breath
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