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exam 2

2 approachs to restoring function

1) Natural/Conventional 2) Unconventional

Natural/ conventional approach

1) Regeneration of neurons 2) Spinal Plasticity 3) Physical therapy

Unconventional approach

1)Replace portions of nervous system with technology 2) interface machines with nervous system

electrical stimulation

Apply electrical current to muscles or CNS to cause movement; Different from applications for pain (don't cause movement)

functional electrical stimulation

low level electrical stimulation to assist movement (ex: pacemaker); can assist w/ standing or grasping; not useful w/ denervation


Bionic neurons; wireless electrical device; small & can be implanted in muscle; external controller sends signals for control; can emit electrical current to cause contraction

Advantage of BIONs over FES

implantantation less invasive but performance is similar

Application for BIONs

Stroke patients may regain movement

Brain computer interfaces

a communication system that does not depend on the brain's normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles

Two approaches to BCIs

1) EEG based techniques (electrodes on surface of head) 2) Single unit recording (implant in brain)

3 BCI algorithms

1) mental prosthesis 2) thought translation device 3) Wadsworth BCI

Berlin brain computer interface

subjects control paddles to play Pong

Implanted electrodes

implanted into primary motor cortex

Vision System

Cameras record visual field, info sent to visual cortex, patient sees "phosphenes"


(still being developed); silicon chip w/ actual neurons

deep brain stimulation

tx for parkinson's (also tourettes & depression); reduces tremor via electrical impulses that disrupt problem brain activity; last resort


implanted into peripheral nervous system; specialized subcatagory of FES (pacemaker, cochlear implants, bionic arms)

Cochlear implants

convert sound into electricity & stimulate auditory nerves

2 types of hearing loss

1) conductive (volume of sound reduced) 2) sensory hearing loss (damage to cochlea- this is when implants would be used)

myoelectrical control

uses EMG signals as control 4 motors of bionic arm

Nerve transfer surgery

arm amputated, nerves rerouted to parts of shoulder so signals can still be sent; used by thinking about performing a movement & since nerve is still intact, movement occurs

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