2 approachs to restoring function
1) Natural/Conventional 2) Unconventional
Natural/ conventional approach
1) Regeneration of neurons 2) Spinal Plasticity 3) Physical therapy
1)Replace portions of nervous system with technology 2) interface machines with nervous system
Apply electrical current to muscles or CNS to cause movement; Different from applications for pain (don't cause movement)
functional electrical stimulation
low level electrical stimulation to assist movement (ex: pacemaker); can assist w/ standing or grasping; not useful w/ denervation
Bionic neurons; wireless electrical device; small & can be implanted in muscle; external controller sends signals for control; can emit electrical current to cause contraction
Advantage of BIONs over FES
implantantation less invasive but performance is similar
Application for BIONs
Stroke patients may regain movement
Brain computer interfaces
a communication system that does not depend on the brain's normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles
Two approaches to BCIs
1) EEG based techniques (electrodes on surface of head) 2) Single unit recording (implant in brain)
3 BCI algorithms
1) mental prosthesis 2) thought translation device 3) Wadsworth BCI
Berlin brain computer interface
subjects control paddles to play Pong
implanted into primary motor cortex
Cameras record visual field, info sent to visual cortex, patient sees "phosphenes"
(still being developed); silicon chip w/ actual neurons
deep brain stimulation
tx for parkinson's (also tourettes & depression); reduces tremor via electrical impulses that disrupt problem brain activity; last resort
implanted into peripheral nervous system; specialized subcatagory of FES (pacemaker, cochlear implants, bionic arms)
convert sound into electricity & stimulate auditory nerves
2 types of hearing loss
1) conductive (volume of sound reduced) 2) sensory hearing loss (damage to cochlea- this is when implants would be used)
uses EMG signals as control 4 motors of bionic arm
Nerve transfer surgery
arm amputated, nerves rerouted to parts of shoulder so signals can still be sent; used by thinking about performing a movement & since nerve is still intact, movement occurs
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