20 terms

Earth's Surface

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uniformitarianism
the geologic processes that occurred in the past are the same as the processes that occur today
weathering
the processes that break down rock and other substances
frost wedging
causes mechanical weathering of rock by means of freezing and thawing
abrasion
the agent of mechanical weathering in which rock is worn away by the action of other rock particles
chemical weathering
causes the mineral composition of rocks to change
rock type and climate
the most important factors in determining the rate of weathering
soil formation
begins with the weathering of bedrock
humus
found in the A horizon layer of soil
erosion
the process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another
gravity
causes mass movement
creep
the slow downhill mass movement of rock and soil
runoff
increased by cutting down crops
delta
a landform created by water deposition
glacier
1) a large mass of ice that slowly moves over land causing erosion and deposition
2) creates fjords, horns, and U shaped valleys
beach
coastal feature that is created by wave deposition
waves
breaks down rock and creates sand and sediment along a shoreline
loess
particles of clay and silt eroded and deposited by the wind
deposition
the process in which sediment is laid down in new locations
fossils
the preserved remains or traces of organisms that lived in the past
the study of fossils
allows scientists to describe past environments and the history of life