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holistic approach

Advocates personal responsibility for healthy living

recreational experience

Everyone has a Right to recreate. Recreation as an end to itself

Treatment concept

used as a treatment tool to cure> to use Recreation to meet other needs/goals.

social recreation

activity engaged in during one's leisure time that involves, in an appropriate setting, social interaction

continuum model

This diagnoses the behavior between non-problematic use and severely problematic use. Goes from ranges of use, abuse, & dependence.

Leisure ability model

most widely accepted and utilized.
composed of 3 components
1) functional intervention
2) leisure education
3) recreation participation
ultimate goal: a satisfying leisure lifestyle.

Activity therapy

uses things the resident enjoys to prevent boredom and frustration

Ecological Model

a model that represents or describes the relationships between the components of an ecological system

Long term care

provide medical, nursing, dietary, recreation, rehabilitative and social services for residents. Maybe permanent or temporary.

custodial model

This emphasizes security, discipline, and order. To do with incarceration.

therapeutic milieu

An environment that provides client the opportunity to interact with staff and other clients. It gives the client the opportunity to practice interpersonal skills, provide feedback to peers about behavior, and work together to develop problem-solving skills.

medical model

the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, this assumes that these mental illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms and cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.

human service model

A treatment approch that utilizes problems solving to work with clients and their problems within the context of the environment.


freedom to choose a pastime or enjoyable activity

attribution model

A person's explanation of the course of events that occurred in their life. External and internal.

learned helplessness

condition in which repeated attempts to control a situation fail, resulting in the belief that the situation is uncontrollable

perceived freedom

feeling free to participate in an activity without a nagging sense that you have to or that you should be doing something else

intrinsic motivation

A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake

extrinsic motivation

a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment

internal locus of control

the perception that one controls one's own fate

external locus of control

the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate



psycho analytic

freud: superego and guilt, today: induction empathy based guilt: ok to feel a bit of guilt but not too much/ with superego, fear of guilt, keeps us in check fear of punishment, fear of losing love of parents
5-6 yo moral development done

catharsis theory

the idea that viewing violence actually reduces violent behavior

diversional play

child's activities have no purpose, indicating boredom

compensation theory

leisure is used to make up for needs unfulfilled by work.

surplus energy

The idea that children play to displace energy that is usually used for survival is what

flow theory

high skill + high challenge.

high skill + medium challenge = control (most activities we do)

intrinsic motivation, being in the zone


according to Maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential

maslow hierarchy of needs

theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social, and esteem needs to self-actualization needs

legally blind


hearing loss

deafness is when a person cannot understand speech from hearing alone. ranges from mild to severe, symptoms include speaking too loudly, leaning forwards to hear, cupping hand or turning head, inappropriate responses, asking for repeating words - Nervous system disorder


a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain

signs of stroke

severe HA, slurred speech, weakness or paralysis, change in cranial nerves, confusion or disorientation, dizziness or ataxia


a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind


An emotional state of high energy, with the stress response as the body's reaction to it.


All clinical disorders EXCEPT personality disorders and mental retardation


personality disorders and mental retardation


a type of schizophrenia characterized by prominent delusions that are persecutory or grandiose


an indirect expression of aggression delievered in a way that allows the sender to maintain a facade of kindness


an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations


a personality disorder where the person has no respect for laws or the rights of other human beings


cluster B personality disorder: In a constant state of crisis, promiscuous, unable to tolerate anxiety-causing situations, afraid of being alone, and having intense but brief relationships

post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Phenomenon in which victums of catastrophes experience again the original event in the form of dreams or flash backs.


a condition of general emotional dejection and withdrawal; sadness greater and more prolonged than that warranted by any objective reason.


affected with or marked by frenzy or mania uncontrolled by reason


a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state

bi-polar disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.

mood disorder

conditions in which a person experiences extreme moods, such as depression or mania; also called affective disorder


any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact


impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to wernicke's area (impairing understanding)


being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs)

chemical dependency

A physical and psychological habituation to a mood- or mind-altering drug, such as alcohol or cocaine.

social impairment

lowering of performance on a given task in the pressence of others - usually a task that is not well rehearsed

organic brain disorder

Condition resulting from neurological disturbance, genetic abnormality, or tumor.

congestive heart failure

inability to pump enough blood to avoid congestion in the tissues


First degree (surface), second degree (epidermis, maybe upper part of dermis), third degree (subcutaneous, if extensive may need grafting)

tramatic brain injury

damage to an individuals brain tissue some time other than birth. males are affected twice as often as females

cognitive impairment

a general term used to describe any type of mental difficulty or deficiency; more commonly used term is mental retardation; defined by intellectual function; 85% are educable; 10% are trainable

physical impairment

Any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement or anatomical loss affecting one or more of body systems.


Process of determining the importance, size, or value of something


A - Assess (what is the situation?)(what is the problem?)
P - Plan (how to improve/stabilize the problem)
I - Implement (putting plan into action)
E - Evaluate (did the plan work?)

Quality assurance

gathering and evaluating information about the services provided as well as the results achieved and comparing this information with an accepted standard

Total Quality Management

This is an approach that aims to involve all employees in the quality improvement process, a philosophy that involves everyone in an organization in a continual effort to improve quality and achieve customer satisfaction

504 rehabilitation act 1973

expands protection to other areas that receive federal assistance (education)

Individuals with disabilities education act (IDEA)

A United States federal law that governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to children with disabilities. It addresses the educational needs of children with disabilities from birth to age 18 or 21 in cases that involve 14 specified categories of disability.

Americans with disabilities act (ADA)

Passed by Congress in 1990, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings., prohibits employers, discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities, a law prohibiting discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities in the workplace, transportation, public accomodations, and telecommunications


the pursuit of influencing outcomes- including public policy and resource allocation decision within political, economic, and social systems and instituations that directly affect people's lives


a record of being qualified to perform certain acts after passing an examination given by an accredited professional organization


the act of granting credit or recognition (especially with respect to educational institution that maintains suitable standards)


A mandatory credentialing process established by law, usually at the state level, that grants the right to practice certain skills and endeavors

continuous quality improvement

system of development in the workplace for daily improving performance at every level in every operational process by focusing on meeting or exceeding customer expectations, prevention is emphasized; views limitations and problems proactively as opportunities to increase quality, a philosophy of continual improvement of processes, Search for new ways to improve patient care, prevent errors, and identify and fix problems


continuing education unit

cognitive retraining

helps students regain preceptual processing, communication, behavioral, and social skills that were lost as a result of traumatic brain injury. Traumatic brain injured and stroke patients may receive this as a means of restoring one's mental processes, including memory, problem solving, sensory perception, emotions, and movement.

non verbal communication

communication that uses factors other than words, such as gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, and body language, expressing oneself through body language

sensory stimulation

Includes touch, sight, taste, smell and hearing. As these needs are fulfilled the individual may respond to the environment. Can produce predictable responses, such as slow rocking to calm a patient with high tone or agitation

personality development

Development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span, development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the lifespan

psychodynamic theory

an approach to personality development, based largely on the ideas of Sigmund Freud, which holds that much of behaviour is governed by unconscious forces. (a theory), Any theory of behavior that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces. Relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including unconscious ones

Humanistic Theory

normally associated with Maslow and Rogers; any personality theory that emphasizes that people are positively motivated and progress towards higher levels of functioning (more to human existence than dealing with hidden conflicts); stresses people to potential for growth and change as people experience life. An explanation of behavior that emphasizes the entirety of life rather than individual components of behavior and focuses on human dignity, individual choice, and self-worth. The psychological view that human beings possess an innate tendency to improve and to determine their lives through the decisions they make.

client centered therapy

A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth., An insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy.

active listening

empathic process in which the person being spoken to echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy.

non verbal behavior

unspoken messages clients send about how they feel or think. Includes body gestures, eye contact, facial expressions, vocal quality

source oriented medical record

Patient information is arranged according to who supplied the data- the patient, doctor, specialist, or someone else. Describes all problems and treatments on the same form in a simple chronological order

problem oriented medical record

When the physician or treatment team creates a master list of patient/client deficits and develops a plan of action focused on these deficits.

SOAP note

Subjective; Objective; Assessment; Plan - many clinicians use this format to document a visit with a patient, progress note that focuses on a single patient problem and includes subjective and objective data, analysis, and planning; most often used in the POMR

Functional Independence Measure (FIM)

test physical, psychological, and social function. evaluates level of assistance needed, functional changes in different environments, Outcome measure used in National Rehabilitation Hospital Study & is most commonly used outcome measure in adult rehab:

Formative evaluation

occurs during the process of learning when the teacher or the students monitor progress while it is still possible to modify instruction, The process of gathering information and providing feedback that teachers can use to improve their practice.

summative evaluation

conducted after program has been implemented in order to assess outcomes. Refers to an evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program.

ADA 1990

a law enacted by the U.S. in 1990. It was signed into law on July 26, 1990, by President George H. W. Bush. The law is a wide-ranging civil rights law that prohibits, under certain circumstances, discrimination based on disability.

group roles

the shared expectations group members have regarding each individual's communication behavior in the group and behaviors or duties each member is expected to fulfill; Each member may perform a different role; Roles maybe determined by one's position within the group of their place of leadership. May be determined by specialization or expertise

group building

provides a framework for creating a win/win solution that combined creative contribution from all group members

group maintenance

activities by an interest group designed to affect policy, Includes enrolling new members and providing benefits for them. Listener, harmonizer, trust builder, supporter, tension reliever, Define a groups social atmosphere (giving praise, mediating, keeping the peace).

task functions

behaviors that are directly relevant to the group's task and that affect the group's productivity.

negative roles

Roles in a group that prohibit the group from reaching its goals. Isolator, Dominator, Free Rider, Detractor, Digresser, Airhead, Socializer

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

positive reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.


An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior


using operant conditioning to teach a complex response by linking together less complex skills


a cue given to a performer (usually the beginning of the next line to be spoken)

token economies

a behavioral technique in which desirable behaviors are reinforced with a token, such as a small chip or fake coin, which can be exchanged for privileges


written agreements, especially legal ones

stress management

identifying sources of stress and learning how to handle them in ways that promote good mental/emotional health

assertiveness training

Techniques that train people how to be appropriately assertive in social situations; often included as part of health behavior modification programs, on the assumption that some poor health habits, such as excessive alcohol consumption or smoking, develop in part to control difficulties in being appropriately assertive., a method of psychotherapy that reinforces you for stating negative and positive feelings directly


real objects, stimulate senses, new motivation for life, pictures, animals, hobbies, group interaction (depression or early stage of disorientation)

reality orientation

Communication technique used to make an older adult more aware of time, place and person with the purpose of restoring a sense of reality, improving the level of awareness, promoting socialization, elevating independent functioning and minimizing confusion, disorientation, and physical regression.

values clarification

helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for. Students are encouraged to define their own values and understand others' values.


(psychology) the aggregate of the responses or reactions or movements made by an organism in any situation


the procedure that is varied in order to estimate a variable's effect by comparison with a control condition


standards used in judging; CF. criterion

self awareness

The most essential trait; the ability to read your own emotions and gauge your moods acurately, so you know how you are affecting others

decision making

the process of choosing a solution from available alternatives

social skill development

being accepted by peers, building a network of social relationships and developing friendships are all key in self-esteem; including structured opportunities for social interaction, rehearsal of skills and use of scripts and role-playing can all be beneficial

maintenance skills

if you stay involved in cognitively challenging things when you get older you will stay sharper.

conflict resoultion

The process of resolving a disagreement in a peaceful way.

leadership style

The relatively consistent way in which individuals in leadership positions attempt to influence the behaviour of others.

autocratic leadership

A form of leadership in which the leader makes decisions on his or her own and then announces those decisions to the group.

supervisory leadership

Behavior that provides guidance, support, and corrective feedback for day-to-day activities.

administrative leadership

(Executive Leadership) Responsible for budgeting, organizing, maintaining structure, and having a vision. Ex. Agency Director, Presidents, VP's.

democratic leadership

members of the group take a more participative role in the decision-making process.

laissez fair leadership

Style of leadership allowing staff members to make decisions for themselves based on the assumption that employees are motivated by internal forces and do not require management participation

group development

Occurs in four stages: Mutual acceptance, Communication and decision making, motivation and productivity, and control and organization., forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning


an observable and measurable end result having one or more objectives to be achieved within a more or less fixed timeframe


the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)

task analysis

The process of breaking a complex skill or series of behaviors into smaller, teachable units; also refers to the results of this process.

cognitive domain

the "thinking" domain, includes six intellectual abilities and thinking processes beginning with knowing, comprehending, and applying to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation

activity modification

Activity modification is the first option to achieve maximum participation by simply modifying the type of equipment used or the activity rules.
- However, keep activity as close to the original as possible (i.e. substitute a yarn ball for a birdie for badminton).


the belief that people with disabilities should be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability, As a philosophy and a principle, the belief that people with disabilities should, to the maximum extent possible, be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability. As an approach to intervention, the use of progressively more typical settings and procedures "to establish and/or maintain personal behaviors which are as culturally normal as possible" (Wolfensberger, 1972, cited in CHH, 2 Ed).

range of motion

movement of a joint to the extent possible without causing pain

program design

Structure of event program elements to achieve specific goals and objectives.

activity analysis

The process of identifying, describing, and evaluating the activities an organization performs.

behavioral domains

Terms describing problems related to knowledge, attitude/beliefs, physical environment, access to food, and food safety.

leisure diagnostic battery

Measures an individual's leisure experience, motivational and situational issues that influence leisure.

validity measurement

extent to which a test, instrument, or experimental method does what it is meant to

reliability measurement

Refers to the consistency of measurement, specifically, the extent to which repeated measurement of the same event yields the same values.


the process of gathering information about events or processes in a careful, orderly way

naturalistic assessment

a performance-based assessment technique that involves the application of knowledge to real-life activitities

subjective data

Things a person tells you about that you cannot observe through your senses; symptoms

objective data

observable and measurable signs

Recreation Therapy

Recreational activities as used as a form of treatment to assist in the overall rehabilitation of the patient. Recreation as a therapy is used as a means of achieving established treatment goals concomitant with the overall treatment plans for the client.

Theraputic recreation

any recreation that includes activities to help a person's emotional, mental, or physical health.

Head injury

any traumatic damage to the head resulting from blunt or penetrating trauma of the skull; bleeding, edema, and ischemia may result.

physical impairment

(ADA) any physiological disorder or condition, cosmetic disfigurement, or anatomical loss effecting one or more of the following body systems, neuro, musculoskeletal, special senses, resp, CV, repro, GI, GU, hem/lymph, skin, endocrine

spina bifida

congenital defect in the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of spinal membranes or tissue

muscular dystrophy

group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system

spinal cord

a major part of the central nervous system which conducts sensory and motor nerve impulses to and from the brain

spinal cord injury

Bruising or severing of the spinal cord from a blow to the vertebral column resulting in muscle paralysis and sensory impairment below the injury level.

multiple sclerosis

A chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to the myelin sheath. Plaques occur in the brain and spinal cord causing tremor, weakness, incoordination, paresthesia, and disturbances in vision and speech

cerebral palsy

a condition caused by brain damage around the time of birth and marked by lack of muscle control and paralysis especially in the limbs


a disorder of the central nervous system characterized by loss of consciousness and convulsions

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