AP Computer Science Principles Final Exam Review
Terms in this set (33)
error that results when the number of bits is not enough to hold the number, like a car's odometer "rolling over"
error that results when the number of bits is not enough to represent the actual number, like 3 digits to represent π as 3.14
Compressing data in a way that throws some data away and makes it almost impossible to recover the original, great compression, like JPEG images
Compressing data in a way that preserves all data away and allows full recovery of the original, good compression -- usually not as good as lossy, like PNG images
data about data, like a camera storing the location, aperture, shutter speed, etc. for a digital photo
code flows line by line, one after another, like a recipe
a boolean condition to determine which of two algorithmic paths are taken, aka if-then
using a looping control structure, like while, for, foreach, repeat, repeat-until, etc.
polynomial in the number of steps an algorithm takes in the worst case based on the input size
Not reasonable time
Usually exponential in the number of steps, like doubling every time your input grows by one
using a "rule" to guide an algorithm, like always walking toward the north star if you were stuck in a forest
A problem that is so difficult, we can't ever create an algorithm that would be able to answer yes or no for all inputs, like determining if a user's program run on some input would always stop and not run forever
Linear vs binary search
Going one by one vs starting in the middle and going left/right like looking for a word in the dictionary -- binary search requires the list to be sorted in order
Application Programming Interface, how you define libraries and call them
Public key encryption
is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.
is an identifier assigned to each computer and other device (e.g., printer, router, mobile device, etc.) connected to a TCP/IP network that is used to locate and identify the node in communications with other nodes on the network
the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the original protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP).
involves encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation
is a type of Internet-based computing that provides shared computer processing resources and data to computers and other devices on demand
Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce.
short for malicious software, is any software used to disrupt computer or mobile operations, gather sensitive information, gain access to private computer systems, or display unwanted advertising
is the attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack where the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.
is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
Lots of people to help with a scientific project, like asking everyone around the world to count the butterflies they see one day
Using distributed calculations and/or storage for big data or a web applicatio)
Asking lots of users online to help with something, like funding a project, or running SETI@Home to help look for extraterrestrial signals
An alternative to copyright that allows people to declare how they want their artistic creations to be shared, remixed, used in noncommercial contexts, and how the policy should propagate with remixed versions
A policy that allows people to have read access to things, e.g., libraries or online data
The # of transistors on a chip doubles every two years
A system where one user's computer connects through the Internet to another user's computer without going through an intermediary "centralized" computer to manage the connection
The idea that some communities / populations have less access to computing than others
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