53 terms

Interest Groups, Political Parties, Media

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interest group
An organization of people sharing a common interest or goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
iron triangle
Creation of powerful relationship of mutual benefit & support among congressional committee, government agency and regulated interest group(s).
potential group
all the people who might be interest group members because they share some common interest
actual group
That part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join.
collective good
something of value that cannot be withheld from a potential group member
free-rider problem
The problem faced by unions and other groups when people do not join because they can benefit from the group's activities without officially joining. The bigger the group, the more serious the problem.
selective benefits
goods that a group can restrict to those who actually join
single-issue groups
Groups that have a narrow interest, tend to dislike compromise, and often draw membership from people new to politics. These features distinguish them from traditional interest groups.
lobbying
A strategy by which organized interests seek to influence the passage of legislation by exerting direct pressure on members of the legislature.
electioneering
direct group involvement in the electoral process
political action commitees
Groups that raise money from individuals and then distribute it in the form of contributions to candidates that the group supports
union shops
a provision found in some collective bargaining agreements requiring all employees of a business to join the union within a short period of time
right-to-work-laws
A U.S state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment
public interest lobbies
organizations that seek a collective good which does not only benefit their membership
high-tech politics
politics in which the behavior of the citizens and policymakers and the political agenda itself are increasingly shaped technology
mass media
Television, radio, newspaper, magazines, the Internet, and other means of popular communication
press conferences
Meetings of public officials with reporters
investigative journalism
the use of in-depth reporting to unearth scandals, scams, and schemes, at times putting reporters in adversarial relatiionships with political leaders
print media
newspapers and magazines, as compared with electronic media
electronic media
television, radio, and the Internet, as compared with print media
narrowcasting
media programing on cable TV or the Internet that is focused on a particular interest and aimed and a particular audience
selective exposure
the process through which people consciously choose to get the new from information sources that have viewpoints comparable with their own
chains
groups of newspapers published by media conglomerates and today accounting for over four-fifths of the nation's daily newspaper circulation
beats
specific locations from which news frequently emanates, such as Congress or the White House.
trial balloons
international new leaks for the purpose of assessing the political reaction
sound bites
short video clips of approximately 10 seconds.
talking head
a shot of a person's face talking directly to the camera
policy agenda
the issues that attract the serious attention of public officials and other people actively involved in politics at the time
policy entrpreneurs
People who invest their political "capital" in an issue. They could be in or out of government.
political party
a team of people seeking to control the governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly constituted election
linkage institutions
the channels through which people's concerns become political issues on the government's policy agenda.
rational-choice theory
this explains the actions of voters as well as politicians. It assumes that individuals act in their own interest.
party image
the voter's perception of what the Republicans or Democrats stand for, such as conservatism and liberalism.
party identification
a citizen's self-proclaimed preference for one party or the other
ticket splitting
voting with one party for one office and with another party for other offices
party machines
a type of political party organization that relies heavily on material inducements, such as patronage, to win votes and govern
patronage
One of the key inducements used by party machines. It is usually given for political reasons rather than on competence.
closed primaries
elections to select party nominees in which only people who have registered for that party can participate
open primaries
elections to select party nominees in which voters can participate even though they are not registered as that particular party
national convention
the meeting of party delegates every four years to choose a presidential candidate and write the party platform
national committee
one of the institutions that keeps the party operating between conventions.
national chairperson
the person responsible for the day-to-day activities of the party
coalition
a group of individuals with a common interest on which every political party depends
critical election
an election where new issues emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often replace with the minority party.
party realignment
the displacement of the majority party by the minority party usually during a critical election period
New Deal coalition
a coalition forged by the Democrats, who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's.
party dealignment
the gradual disengagement of people from the parties, as seen in part by the shrinking party identification
third parties
Electoral contenders other than the two major parties.
winner-take-all system
an electoral system in which legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first. (single member district)
proportional representation
an electoral system used throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won.
coalition government
when two or more parties join together to form a majority in a national legislature
responsible party model
A view about how parties should work, held by some political scientists. They should offer clear choices to the voters and once in office, should carry out campaign promises.
Blue Dog Democrats
Fiscally conservative Democrats who are mostly from the South/ or rural parts of the U.S.
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