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Viruses are made of the same four types of biological molecules as living cells. These include all of the following exceptc


In an atom, the electrons are

present in various energy shells.

Rank the following chemical bonds from weakest to strongest:

hydrogen, ionic, covalent

Surface tension of water is due to

hydrogen bonding

The internal pH of most cells is near neutral. This allows

enzymes within the cells to act at peak efficiency

Joining thousands of simple sugars together through a series of chemical reactions forms polysaccharides.
These are referred to as _____________ reactions.


An atom in which the number of electrons is different from the number of protons is called a(n)


Which of the following elements is not particularly abundant in living cells?


Water is often known as a universal solvent. This is not exactly true, as water dissolves polar molecules as well as

ionic compounds

Because of the atomic structure of carbon, it tends to form

covalent bonds

Most cells are small. When they reach a certain size, cells typically divide. This has to do with the


These break down carbon containing molecules to make ATP


Structure surrounding the viral nucleic acids


The outer portion of the viral particle


Modification of proteins takes place, often determining the final destination of these proteins

Golgi apparatus

Lipids and phospholipids are produced here.

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

A stone is pushed from the top of a hill. Halfway to the bottom of the hill, this rolling stone

has both potential energy and kinetic energy

Substances that start chemical reactions are called


In photosynthesis, the light-dependent reactions

produce ATP and NADPH.

The chemical reactions associated with metabolism

are energy absorbing and energy releasing

Which of the following is not a product of cellular respiration?


How many turns of the Krebs cycle are necessary to completely break down one molecule of glucose?


Which of the following does not take place during the first of the two phases of photosynthesis?

Carbon dioxide is fixed

Hummingbirds break down (oxidize) glucose and other food molecules during cellular aerobic respiration. The carbon atoms in these organic molecules are released as ____________during the _____________.

carbon dioxide, Krebs Cycle

The primary energy carrier between the Krebs cycle and the electron transport system is


Which color of light has the least important role in photosynthesis?


glucose is split into two molecules; produces two ATP


electron transport chain

joins high energy electrons with oxygen and hydrogen to form water; produces much ATP

Most of a cell's ATP is produced during this cellular process

electron transport chain in the mitochondria

Water is split and ATP and NADPH are produced.

light trapping phase of photosynthesis

Glucose is oxidized to pyruvate


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