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APHY 101 IVYTECH test 1, midterm, test 3, final
Terms in this set (237)
Signs of aging at the cellular level are:
impaired cell division and the ability to break down and recycle worn cell parts.
In all organisms, the basic unit of structure and function is
The thoracic cavity lies _____________ the abdominopelvic cavity.
The diaphragm separates the thoracic and the abdominopelvic cavities. T/F
Which action is the main function of the digestive system?
Absorption of nutrients
The oral, nasal, orbital, and middle ear cavities are in the dorsal cavity. T/F
The digestive system filters wastes from the blood. T/F
The elbow is distal to the wrist.
Which of the following characteristics of life and their descriptions are correct?
Circulation-the movement of substances in body fluids
The ears are lateral to the eyes.
In negative feedback mechanisms changes away from the normal state
stimulate changes in the opposite direction.
Homeostasis is the
tendency of the body to maintain a stable internal environment.
An anatomical section that separates the body into right and left portions is a __________ section.
Which of the following lists best illustrates the idea of increasing levels of complexity?
Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
Which of the following is not true of organelles?
They are only in cells of humans
The anatomical term that indicates a structure close to the surface is
Nucleic acids are
composed of building blocks called nucleotides.
The secondary structure of a protein molecule is the result of
A person with alkalosis has a blood pH less than 7.3. T/F
The formula H2O refers to
A molecule that contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Which of the following is characteristic of carbohydrates?
all of the above
Which of the choices includes all acids?
Vinegar, grapes, tomatoes, and coffee
All of the above
Electrolytes are substances that
ionize in water
An electrolyte ionizes in water.
The number of protons in an atom of an element always equals its atomic weight. T/F
A water solution that contains equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions is
Which of the following substances is an element?
Which of the following groups of compounds is hydrophobic?
The atomic weight of an element whose atoms contain 8 protons, 8 electrons, and 8 neutrons is
A decomposition reaction can be symbolized by
AB → A + B.
The difference in hydrogen ion concentration between solutions with pH 4 and pH 5 is
Chemistry is important to the study of physiology because
all of the above
Cancer can result if
mitosis is too frequent or does not stop.
a cell membrane engulfs solid particles.
If the concentration of glucose in the water outside of a cell is higher than the concentration inside
water will leave the cell by osmosis.
Cilia and flagella extend from certain cells, enabling them to move. T/F
Chromosomes duplicate during
A cell that can divide to give rise to any cell type is
During interphase, a cell rests. T/F
The organelle where energy is captured and stored in the chemical bonds of ATP is a
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum does not. T/F
If a red blood cell is placed in a hypotonic solution,
the cell will swell and may eventually burst.
All cell types divide at the same rate. T/F
Stages of the cell cycle unfold in the following order:
interphase, mitosis, cytoplasmic division, differentiation
A protein that spans the cell membrane is termed a(n)
Microfilaments and microtubules are part of the cytoskeleton. T/F
Which of the following does not influence the rate of diffusion?
The amount of energy available for transport molecules
Cells lose water when placed in a __________ solution.
What characteristic do simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion share?
Both move a substance from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration without cellular energy.
A parietal layer of a serous membrane _______, whereas a visceral layer of a serous membrane ________.
lines cavities; covers organs
The three major parts of a cell are
the nucleus, cytoplasm, and cell membrane.
The atoms of the isotopes of a particular element vary in the number of
Which of the following transport processes does not require expenditure of cellular energy?
Saturated fats _______ than unsaturated fats.
have more single carbon-carbon bonds
An organic compound always contains
carbon and hydrogen.
Which of the following groups of elements account for more than 95% of the human body by weight?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
The symbol Na+ represents a sodium atom that has lost an electron. T/F
Metabolism is defined as _____.
all the chemical reactions occurring in an organism that support life
The number of protons in an atom of an element always equals its atomic weight. T/F
A selectively permeable membrane
allows some substances to pass through and excludes others.
When the body is placed in the anatomical position, which of the following is not true?
The palms are facing backward.
Which of the following correctly describes the structural organization of the cell membrane?
A bilayer of phospholipid molecules in which protein molecules are embedded and can move
A glucose molecule is broken down into two pyruvic acid molecules in
Transcription and translation differ in that
transcription produces RNA and translation produces protein.
If one strand of DNA has the sequence TCAGGCTATTCCCG, then the complementary sequence of the other strand is
Which of the following is not true regarding RNA?
It is double-stranded.
An enzyme is
a molecule, usually a protein, that speeds the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the activation energy.
Catabolism builds up molecules and anabolism breaks down molecules. T/F
Codons are part of
Which of the following is an example of catabolism?
The breakdown of glucose in the cytoplasm and mitochondria.
The aerobic reactions of cellular respiration occur in the mitochondria. T/F
Which of the following substances increases in abundance during cellular respiration?
A cofactor is ______ and examples are _____.
a necessary part of some enzymes; copper, iron, and zinc
An ATP molecule consists of an adenine, a ribose, and three phosphates. T/F
The electron transport chain is a series of enzyme complexes that pass electrons, releasing energy that is used to phosphorylate ADP to ATP on the inner mitochondrial membrane. T/F
A cell may contain hundreds of different types of enzymes. T/F
ATP is important to cellular processes because it
provides energy for cellular work when the terminal, high-energy bond is broken.
Which choice lists structures in order of increasing size?
nitrogenous base - nucleotide - gene - chromosome - genome
Which of the following is not one of the four basic types of body tissues?
The tissue through which gases are exchanged between the blood and the air in the lungs is
simple squamous epithelium.
A _______ membrane lines tubes and cavities that open to the outside of the body.
Muscle cells with more than one nucleus are
skeletal muscle cells only.
Epithelial tissue functions in
secretion, absorption, and protection
Extracellular matrix consists of
ground substance and protein fibers.
Adipose tissue is a form of
Which of the following characteristics is used to name tissue types?
Organization of cells
A skeletal muscle fiber contains many nuclei. T/F
The type of epithelium that secretes into ducts that open onto surfaces like skin or into body fluids is
The type of intercellular junction that forms tubular channels is
a gap junction.
Functions of neuroglia include which of the following?
They support and bind nervous tissue and provide nutrients and growth factors to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels.
The type of intercellular junction that consists of fused membranes is a(an)
A (An) ______ gland does not branch before reaching the glandular cells or secretory part.
Tissues are groups of cells that have a common overall function, yet are distinctive in their characteristic cell types and the molecules that the cells produce. T/F
Areolar tissue contains
collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and gel-like ground substance.
Bone cells form concentric circles around longitudinal tubes called
Involuntary muscle tissues are
smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue.
Blood is composed of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets suspended in a fluid extracellular matrix called plasma. T/F
Skin wrinkles with age because
fat is lost from the subcutaneous layer and the dermis shrinks.
Milk and ear wax
are secreted from modified sweat glands.
Skin cancer is most likely to develop from
nonpigmented epithelial cells.
Cutaneous carcinomas are usually caused by regular exposure to
Nerve fibers scattered throughout the dermis are associated with
muscles, glands, and sensory receptors.
A burn affecting only the epidermis is a
superficial partial-thickness burn.
Three physiological factors that affect the color of skin are: volume of blood in dermal vessels, carotene in the subcutaneous layer, and various diseases. T/F
A nail consists of
a nail bed and nail plate.
Which of the following is a normal response to excessive loss of body heat in a cold environment?
Dermal blood vessels constrict.
Skin cells play an important role in producing
The arrector pili muscle is attached to
a hair follicle.
Reddened skin reflects
dilated blood vessels with more blood entering the dermis.
As epidermal cells move up through the strata away from their blood supply, they die and become keratinized. T/F
Eccrine sweat glands differ from sebaceous glands
all of the above
What determines the color of skin?
The amount of melanin that melanocytes produce.
As a person ages, the skin typically becomes
spotted with patches of pigment.
The functions of skin include
all of the above
Which person is at highest risk of developing a cutaneous carcinoma?
a light-complexioned man age 52 who goes to the beach on summer weekends and does not use sunblock because he likes to be tan.
Melanin production is greater in the skin of people who live outdoors all the time than in people who do not. T/F
Inflammation makes skin
red, swollen and painful to touch.
Two thieves steal jewelry, and then drop it as they are escaping. The police recover the jewelry, and an officer explains on the evening news that fingerprints were obtained from the back of a watch. The thieves, whose prints are not on file, believe that they can escape prosecution by using acid to remove the epidermis on their fingerpads, so as not to be a match for the fingerprints on the watch. They are wrong because
the prints arise from friction ridges of the dermis, which are not destroyed.
Sebaceous glands secrete
fat globules that mix with cellular debris, forming sebum.
The layer of the epidermis that includes melanocytes and a single row of columnar cells that undergo mitosis is the
Shafts of hair are composed of
dead epidermal cells.
Which of the following happens first after a scab forms?
fibroblasts from the wound edge form new collagenous fibers.
Compact bone has ________, whereas spongy bone has __________.
The axial skeleton includes
the skull, hyoid bone, thoracic cage, and vertebral column.
Osteoblasts are ______, whereas osteocytes are ______.
bone-forming cells; mature bone cells
The hard palate is composed of the
maxillary and palatine bones.
A bone shaft is the diaphysis; the expanded parts at the ends are the epiphyses. T/F
The number of bones in most people is 206. T/F
Bones in the human body are non-living. T/F
Ribs that join the sternum directly by costal cartilages are called
The acetabulum is
a depression in the hip bone that receives the head of the femur.
Articular cartilage is
e zygomatic bone is an example of a(n)
Which three bones fuse to form the hip bone?
the ilium, the ischium, and the pubis.
Which of the following groups of bones, based on shape, is associated with an incorrect example?
Flat bones - thigh bones
Endochondral ossification ______, whereas intramembranous ossification ______.
replaces hyaline cartilage; replaces undifferentiated connective tissue
The parietal bones meet each other along the sagittal suture. T/F
Which of the following is not found associated with spongy bone?
A bone thickens
as compact bone is deposited beneath the periosteum of the diaphysis.
The pectoral girdle consists of two scapulae and two clavicles. T/F
In a child, a vitamin D deficiency results in ______, whereas a vitamin A deficiency results in ______.
rickets; retardation of bone development
Which of the following movements could occur at the hip joint?
All of the above
A joint capsule is reinforced by
ligaments binding articular ends of bones together.
A saddle joint forms between bones whose articulating surfaces have both convex and concave regions. T/F
Fibrous joints are the first to change with age. T/F
Classifying joints as synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, or diarthrotic represents
the degree of movement possible at the joint.
Fluid-filled sacs containing synovial fluid are called
Synovial fluid moistens and lubricates the cartilaginous surfaces in a joint. T/F
Osteoarthritis is caused by a bacterial infection. T/F
Arthritis is a circulatory problem. T/F
The joint between adjacent vertebral bodies is a
symphysis that is amphiarthrotic.
A meniscus cushions articulating surfaces of bones. T/F
In a push-up, the elbow joint flexes as the person lowers. T/F
Arrange the following steps of muscle fiber contraction in the correct sequence.
1. The muscle impulse reaches the sarcoplasmic reticulum and calcium is released.
2. Thin filaments are pulled over the thick filaments.
3. Calcium floods the sarcoplasm and binds to troponin molecules leaving active sites.
4. The impulse arrives at the synapse and travels through the transverse tubules.
5. The muscle fiber shortens and contracts.
6. Myosin heads bind to exposed active sites on actin, forming cross-bridges.
4, 1, 3, 6, 2, 5
The functional unit of muscle contraction is
In the initiation of muscle fiber contraction calcium ions bind to tropomyosin, exposing active sites on actin for cross-bridge formation. T/F
The more movable end of a muscle is its
Transverse tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum are well developed in
skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers.
Activities such as distance swimming and distance running are most likely to stimulate development of
slow fatigue-resistant fibers.
Short muscle cells with centrally located nuclei are
smooth muscle fibers.
In a recording of a muscle twitch, the delay between the time a stimulus is applied and the time the muscle responds is called the
A plank position is part of a yoga/Pilates workout. The person supports the body on the floor in a prone position with the arms and feet supporting the body. It is a little like the "up" position of a push-up, held for 30 to 60 seconds. Contraction of the abdominal muscles in a plank is most likely
A weightlifter uses muscles so the muscles exert more than 75% of their maximum tension, this stimulates
muscle fibers developing new filaments of actin and myosin.
The buccinator muscle is in the
Which of the following is not a muscle of mastication?
The amount of oxygen liver cells require to support the conversion of lactic acid to produce glucose or glycogen is the
A sarcomere is best described as
a unit within a muscle fiber.
When a muscle undergoes atrophy in response to disuse
all of the above
supplies energy for the synthesis of ATP.
Binding sites on the surface of actin allow the formation of cross-bridges with molecules of
The structures that connect cardiac muscle cells are
At a neuromuscular junction
neurotransmitters are released.
The activities of an anatomist consist of _______, whereas those of a physiologist consist of ________
observing body parts; studying functions of the body parts
A DNA molecule is a double helix in which A pairs with C and T pairs with G T/F
An active site of an enzyme is
The part of the enzyme that combines with a substrate
Dehydration synthesis reactions _____, whereas hydrolysis reactions _____
lose h20 to form bonds; use h20 to break bonds
The tissue that forms the outermost layer of the skin is a type of connective tissue
A basement membrane anchors
epithelial tissue to connective tissue
A serous membrane consists of a
layer of simple squamous epithelium and a thin layer of areolar tissue
Cardiac muscle can function without nervous stimulation but skeletal muscle cannot T/F
"Cutaneous membrane" refers to
Histology is the study of the history of anatomy and physiology T/F
Tendons and ligaments are composed primarily of
dense regular connective tissue
The human integumentary system includes
skin, nails, hair follicles, and sweat glands
The hardness of nails comes from
Aging affects the appearance of the skin producing wrinkles and sagging due to decreased collagen and elastin formation T/F
Injections that are administered into the tissue of the skin are called
a lowered body temperature
Which of the following is not correct concerning the skin?
The subcutaneous layer is between the dermis and epidermis
The skin appears yellowish if a person eats too much
Neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands are
Which cells produce myelin in the brain and spinal cord?
Every neuron has
a cell body.
If a resting potential becomes more negative, the membrane is
Which of the following neuroglia are not part of the CNS?
Three general functions of the nervous system are
integrative, motor, and sensory.
The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system. T/F
The most rapid conduction of an impulse along an axon occurs on a fiber that is
thick and myelinated.
During the absolute refractory period, a stimulus of high intensity may trigger a nerve impulse. T/F
The neurotransmitter that controls skeletal muscle contraction is
Because the response of a nerve fiber is all-or-none, a greater intensity of stimulus does not produce a stronger impulse.
Most of the neurons in the brain and spinal cord are
Action potentials are related to impulses conducted along an axon in that
propagation of a series of action potentials along a nerve cell fiber constitutes an impulse.
The simplest level of CNS function is the
The ___________ separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum.
Gray matter of the spinal cord is mostly composed of
Over a lifetime, the brain shrinks by about ___ percent.
The meninges consist of
the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater.
Which lobe of your brain are you using when you answer this question?
The ____________ is the thin meninx attached to the surface of the brain, containing many nerves and blood vessels.
The part of the brain that coordinates voluntary muscular movements is the
all of the above.
The part of the brain that assigns value to a memory is the
The dura mater is the outermost layer of the meninges. T/F
Symptoms of concussion include all except
decreased sensitivity to light and sound.
Sensory receptors include
all of the above.
Which of the following is part of the inner tunic of the eye?
Movement of hair cells in the semicircular canals signals
the direction of motion.
Rods are more sensitive to light than cones, but cones are important for color vision. T/F
Tears contain an enzyme that reduces the risk of eye infection. T/F
Bitter receptors sense
Temperature senses use two types of
free nerve endings.
The ability to ignore your socks around your ankles demonstrates
Rhodopsin is found in ____ cells
The hearing receptors are most closely associated with the
Stretching of tissues can cause pain sensations to arise from visceral organs. T/F
Floaters are bowel movements that float due to a fatty diet. T/F
The capitulum and trochlea are located
at the distal end of the humerus.
Which of the following correctly lists the steps of fracture repair in sequence?
A hematoma forms, granulation tissue and fibrocartilage develop, osteoclasts and phagocytes clear away debris, bony callus forms.
At what age are nearly all bones completely ossified?
Most of the joints in the ankle and wrist are
The soleus is a muscle that forms part of the
The increase in the number of motor units activated as a result of more intense stimulation is called
Which of the following organs is in the abdominopelvic cavity?
Smooth muscle is found in the wall of the
stomach and intestine.
A chemical reaction in which parts of different molecules trade positions is a(n)
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