Excelsior U.S. History Unit 7 (Ch. 21)

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Martin Luther King Jr.
Acclaimed leader of the Civil Rights Movement who called for nonviolent protests. He was also the youngest recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. His assassination was a major turning point in the Civil Rights Movement.
Thurgood Marshall
The lawyer for the NAACP who helped win 29 out of 32 cases in 23 years including Plessy vs. Ferguson and Brown vs. Board of Education. He was also the first African-American appointed as a Supreme Court judge.
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
The 1954 Supreme Court case which unanimously struck down segregation and "separate but equal" policies in schools as unconstitutional and a violation of the 14th Amendment.
Rosa Parks
A seamstress in Montgomery, Alabama who was arrested for refusing to vacate her seat on the bus for a white man which led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Organization founded by Martin Luther King Jr. and others whose purpose was "to carry on nonviolent crusades against the evils of second-class citizenship." Martin Luther King Jr. was also its first President.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
The organization began in North Carolina to bring together students working to foster change in the University systems.
sit-in
A nonviolent form of protest where the participants "sit" peacefully to show their disagreement over an issue.
Freedom Riders
The name given to the people who engaged in a historic bus trip across the South in order to test the Supreme Court decision banning segregated seating on interstate bus routes, terminals, and facilities.
James Meredith
The student who attempted to attend the University of Mississippi and was barred from registration by the Governor of the state. Riots erupted and it took the National Guard, 200 arrests, 15 hours and 2 deaths to stop.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Signed into law by LBJ, this act prohibited discrimination because of race, religion, national origin, and gender in public accommodations.
Freedom Summer
The term given to the time period when voting rights were being discussed and civil rights groups recruited white college students and trained them in nonviolent resistance to help register voters, specifically African Americans in Mississippi.
Fannie Lou Hamer
The woman chosen as the voice of the for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
President Johnson's (LBJ) law passed by Congress which abolished the literacy tests required of voters before they could register. This law increased African Americans registered to vote from 10 percent in 1964 to 60 percent in 1968. It also allowed federal officials to register voters.
De Facto Segregation
Segregation that exists by practice and custom.
De Jure Segregation
Segregation by law
Malcolm X
Civil rights leader who called to African-Americans for armed self-defense and who joined the Nation of Islam. He was a large proponent of the Black Power Movement.
Nation of Islam
The religious affiliation of Malcolm X. Black Muslims believed in the teachings of Elijah Muhammad and that white people were the cause of the black condition and therefore, should be separated from them.
Stokely Carmichael
Coined the phrase "black power" after attempting to finish the "walk against fear" and being arrested and beaten.
Black Power
The "call for black people to begin to define their own goals... (and) to lead their own organizations." This movement included tons of leaders and political parties including Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael and the Black Panthers.
Black Panthers
Political Party founded in Oakland, Ca in 1966 to fight police brutality in the ghetto which advocated self-sufficiency for African-American communities, full employment and decent housing. The Black Panthers were a large part of the Black Power movement.
Kerner Commission
The body appointed by President Johnson to study the causes of urban violence which pointed to white racism as the cause.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
Law passed by Congress which ended discrimination in housing.
Affirmative Action
Programs to help equalize education and job opportunities for groups that had suffered discrimination which has been challenged in recent years.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
The landmark Supreme Court decision (1896) which upheld segregation and "separate but equal" policies. With its passage came the influx of Jim Crow laws.
WWII affect on Civil Rights
In WWII, most of the workforce was taken across oceans to fight the war and there was an abundance of job opportunities for both women and African Americans. Additionally, there were several units in the armed forces created for more soldiers who were African American. These, and other factors helped to set the stage for the Civil Rights Movement in America.
Little Rock Nine
Nine African American students who volunteered to integrate at the Little Rock Central High School. Their entrance was blocked by the Governor of Arkansas and the National Guard was called in by President Eisenhower.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Following the events that began when Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat, African Americans started their first organized civil rights movement by boycotting the bus system. The boycott worked economically as the bus lost money since half of its customers refused to use it.

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