200 terms

US History Regents Review

For the NYS Regents Examination, Review. Colonial Era to Present

Terms in this set (...)

Triangular Trade
Led directly to the increase in the importation of enslaved Africans to the Western Hemisphere
Economic policy used by the British in which the colonies served as a source of raw materials and a market to sell goods to.
Salutary Neglect
Period of time when the British ignored the colonists because they only wanted the economic prosperity
Virginia House of Burgesses/Mayflower Compact/Town Hall
Early forms of colonial efforts in self government, contributed to a representative democracy
French and Indian War
Caused by land claims in the Ohio River valley, led to a period of salutary neglect, British increased taxes on the colonies to pay for this
Albany Plan of Union
Attempt to unify the colonists together under British rule, Didn't work because colonists wanted to keep their power
Declaration of Independence
List of grievances against the monarchy in Britain
Thomas Paine "Common Sense"
Helped persuade colonists to join the fight for independence, convinced many who were undecided
Sugar and Stamp Act
Tax on foreign goods and printed materials helped cause the Revolutionary War
Proclamation Line of 1763
border established by Great Britain in order to avoid conflict between the American colonists and Native Americans
Articles of Confederation
First government after the Revolutionary War, failed because the states were too powerful and the national government was too weak
Shay's Rebellion
Convinced many Americans they needed a stronger national government
Great Compromise
Disputes over representation in government, decided to have a two house legislature, with both equal and population based representation
Small States
Supported equal representation
Large States
Supported population based representation
Two House Legislature
Three-Fifths Compromise
Solution to the problem of how to determine the number of representatives in the House of Rep for states with large slave populations
Supported ratification of the Constitution, wanted strong national government
Supported ratification of the Constitution, ONLY if they added the Bill of Rights, were afraid that the fed government would be too powerful (like Britain)
Bill of Rights
first 10 amendments to protect the people from government abuse
Social Contract Theory
John Locke's idea of people deciding which government/consent of the governed
John Peter Zenger
Arrested by the governor of NY, because he printed an article about the governor, expanded freedom of the press
Government for the people by the people of the people
Republican Government
Representatives are elected by the people
Division of powers between the national and state government
Reserved Powers
Powers granted only to the state governments (Example: education, traffic laws, etc)
Delegated Powers
Powers granted only to the federal governments (Example:declare war, coin money, etc)
Concurrent Powers
Powers granted to both the federal and state governments (Example: taxes)
Legislative Branch
Congress, House of representatives and Senate, Bicameral, law making branch
Executive Branch
President and his cabinet, chief of the legislator, executive, and diplomat
Judicial Branch
Federal and Supreme Court, declares federal laws or actions constitutional or unconstitutional
Checks and Balances
Three branches of the government, makes sure one branch does not get more powerful than another
Amendments, elastic clause, necessary and proper clause, unwritten constitution, and judicial review all allow for adaption of the times
Elastic Clause
Used to broaden powers of congress, allowing them to pass more laws
Unwritten Constitution
Practices based on customs and traditions but not actually appearing in the Constitution (example: cabinet, political parties, congressional committees)
Electoral College
method of electing the president, not popular vote
Proclamation of Neutrality/Farewell Address
Issued by George Washington in order to isolate the US from Europe and keep it independent
Alexander Hamilton
proposed the national bank, used a loose interpretation of the Constitution to justify this
Thomas Jefferson
Opposed Hamilton's plan, believed in a strict interpretation until he was president...and purchased the Louisiana Territory
Louisiana Territory
Doubled the size of the US, treaty with France
John Marshal/Marbury v Madison
Expanded the power of the judicial branch, gave the courts the right to declare laws or actions constitutional or unconstitutional
War of 1812
Increased a sense of American Nationalism, gave us an identity
Monroe Doctrine
Foreign policy intended to limit the European influence in the western hemisphere
Roosevelt Corollary
US can intervene in the Western Hemisphere and police it actively if need be
Spoils System
Providing jobs to friends, supporters, or family, corrected by the Civil Service examination
Worcester v. Georgia
Ruled in favor of Native Americans who were being forced to move from Georgia, but Andrew Jackson did not enforce this ruling
Erie Canal
Beneficial waterway which connected the Midwest to the Atlantic coast increasing trade, manufacture, and growth
Homestead Act of 1862
provided free land to settlers for moving out west, directly impacted the Great Plains
Pacific Railway Act of 1862
Federal government encourage the building of the transcontinental RR giving land to the RR companies
Manifest Destiny
US should possess the entire continent, from sea to shining sea!
People who opposed and fought against slavery, they were radicals of their time
Examples of Abolitionists
William Lloyd Garrison, Harriet Tubman, Harriet Beecher Stowe
James Polk
Goal was fulfilling manifest destiny, policies involved texas, california, and oregon territory
Missouri Compromise
Missouri would be a slave state, Maine would enter as a free state, meant to keep the balance between slave and free states even
Compromise of 1850
California entered as a free state, Fugitive Slave Act was passed
Fugitive Slave Act
Free states had to return run away slaves to the owners if they were caught
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Established popular sovereignty for the territories when determining slave or free
Dred Scott v Sanford
Decision which ruled that Congress could not ban slavery in the territories, and that slaves were not citizens
Developed in the South because of the use of slave labor and the rich soil, southern coastal plains
Bleeding Kansas
Phrase used to describe the clash between the proslavery and antislavery groups
Abraham Lincoln
Wanted to preserve the Union
Wartime powers
Lincoln suspended habeas corpus, jailed anti-Union supporters, increased the army without consent of congress, censored papers, etc.
Reasons for Succession of the South
Sectionalism, states rights, breakdown of the Compromises, Lincoln's election
Emancipation Proclaimation
Declared slaves free, in areas rebelling from the Union. Was criticized for not freeing all slaves, and not being able to be enforced
Reasons the North won the Civil War
Economically prepared, more human resources, war material, and better communication
13th Amendment
Banned slavery
15th Amendment
Expanded the right to vote to male African Americans
Period after the Civil War meant to rebuild the South
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan's
Restore the south back into the Union as quickly as possible, no punishments
Radical Republicans
Wanted to punish the south, opposed Lincoln's Plans, pushed the 13th to 15th Amendment
Solid South
Nickname given to the South since they consistently supported democratic
Impeachment of Johnson
Because he would not work with the radical republican in Congress they moved to get rid of him
Jim Crow Laws
Segregation laws based on race
Poll Taxes, Grandfather Clause, Literacy Tests
Meant to restrict African American's right to vote
Plessy v. Ferguson
Separate but equal was constitutional
Black Codes KKK
Attempt to restrict the rights of former slaves and limit the effectiveness of the 14th and 15th amendments
System of farming most common in Southern States after the Civil War, supported the plantations after 13th amendment was passed
New South
term describes changes in the Southern economy after Civil War, more industrial development
Northerners who moved down South to participate in reconstruction governments
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Extra supply of capital and labor, completion of transportation routes like the Erie Canal, and Transcontinental RR, Civil War, power machines, mechanization of agriculture
Businesses who sought to eliminate all competition from that specific industry (ex: oil, steel, RR)
Social Darwinism/Laissez-faire Capitalism
Survival of the fittest apply to business, justified monopolies
Robber Baron
Ruthless tactics when dealing with competitors
Examples of Robber Barons
John D Rockefeller, JP Morgan, Cornelius Vanderbilt
Jacob Riis
Wrote How the Other Half Lives, exposes the living conditions of urban slums
Upton Sinclair
Wrote the Jungle and exposed the meat packing industry
Ida Tarbell
Wrote History of Standard Oil exposing the corruption of the oil industry and its influence in all aspects of government
Examples of Muckrakers
Jacob Rii, Ida Tarbell, Upton Sinclair, Lincoln Stephens
Old Immigration
North and western Europe, mostly British colonies/Britain, needed for labor in cities 1800-1850
New Immigration
Eastern and Southern Europe, Asia, not wanted, afraid would take jobs, 1850-1920
Chinese Exclusion Act
Limited the amount of Chinese immigrants entering the US
Group of Americans who were angry about the immigrants taking jobs from Americans wanted quotas or limits on immigration
Sherman Antitrust Act
Law passed in an attempt to limit the power of monopolies
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulated interstate commerce, business between the different states
Federal Reserve System
Provided a stable supply of money and credit
Graduated/Progressive Income Tax
Authorized by the 16th Amendment, based on the idea people with higher incomes should pay a greater percentage of their income in taxes
Progressive Movement
Meant to correct the economic, social, and political abuses of the industrialized society
Populist Party
were unable to get anyone elected however influenced laws such as direct election of senators and graduated income tax
17th Amendment
Direct election of senators
Collective Bargining
Discussions between labor union leaders and management or business owners to agree on worker contracts
Wagner Act
Part of the New Deal, legalized collective bargining
Pure Food and Drug Act
Provided fed inspection of meat products and forbid the sale of unsafe food products and poisonous medicines, consumer protection
Meat Inspection Act
Created sanitary standards in slaughterhouses and meat processing plants
Writers during the progressive era that exposed problems in cities, factories, and government
Granger Movement
Wanted to make RR lower costs for shipping goods, originally was a farmers organization
Square Deal
Teddy Roosevelt's domestic policy, increased the role in the Federal government in dealing with economic and social problems
Trust Busting
Policies which encourage competition by attacking monopolies, trusts, pools, etc. Believed government should regulate big business
Big Stick Policy
Used by the US to police the western hemisphere and intervene in Ltin American affairs, wanted to prevent European control in Latin America
Extending control over foreign countries
Dollar Diplomacy
Increase the US power in Latin America though economic influence (selling goods)
Protective Tariff
a tax on foreign goods making them more expensive so people will buy American products instead
Open Door Policy
Issued in order to secure equal trade opportunities in China and guarantee access to their economic markets
Spanish American War
Conflict fueled by the news papers and public opinion, resulted in obtaining of overseas colonies
Yellow Journalism
Writing untrue or over-exaggerated stories
Woodrow Wilson
Wrote the Fourteen Points
Causes of WWI
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare, Zimmerman Telegram, Must make the world safe for democracy
Espionage Act/Sedition Act of 1917
Silenced the critics of WWI and those who worked against the war effort, illustrated that national interest is sometimes given priority over individual rights
Schenck v. US
War protester's free speech could be limited if their was a "clear and present danger" Constitutional rights are not absolute
Worked in factories to help with the War effort while men were off fighting in Europe
Right to vote
19th Amendment
Obtained through years of work, final push was the assistance in wartime industry and factroies
African Americans
Moved North during and following WWI as a result of the avablibility of factory jobs
Fourteen Points
Proposed for lasting peace, prevent tensions from leading to war again, believed in self determination, established the League of Nations
Foreign Policy of US after WWI
Neutrality and Isolationism
Treaty of Versailles
Congress refused to sign this treaty because they wanted to avoid more foreign conflicts and the League of nations made them think thye would get involved in another war
Women's Rights Activists
Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B Anthony, Carrie Chapman Catt, Lucretia Mott
Western states
These were the first to grant women the right to vote
Law created by the 18th Amendment that banned the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
Failure of Prohibition
Led to organized crime, respect for law decreased, unpopular laws were difficult to enforce, ended by the 21st Amendment
Sacco and Vanzetti
two immigrant anarchists who were convicted of murder and executed with little evidence during the Red Scare, showed US intolerance towards immigrants
Scopes Trials
Science v Religion, taught evolution in school, showed the changing cultural values
Harlem Renaissance
African American authors and artists used literature and art to celebrate the richness of their heritage increased pride in African American Culture
Women during the 1920s who rejected the tradition feminine roles and refused to conform.
Henry Ford
Famous for implementing the assembly line in order to lower costs of production
Installment Buying
Paying for something a little at a time rather than all at once
Dust Bowl
Caused by drought and over farming, forced the westward migration of many farmers in the area affected
Overproduction of Farm Crops
Resulted in the price staying very low and little profits causing farmers to stay in debt and struggle
Causes of the Great Depression
Stock Market Crash of 1929, overproduction, under consumption, excessive use of credit, uneven distribution of income
Nickname given to poor communities because of this presidents inability to directly help the people
Bonus Army
WWI veterans marched on Washington in protest demanding to be paid, demonstrated the growing discontent with republican efforts to deal with the Great Depression
FDR's New Deal
Wanted the directly help the people, using government intervention and money to help the economic problems in school
Franklin D Roosevelt
Only president to serve for more than two terms
Agricultural adjustment acts
Increase prices of farm prdicts by reducing farming outpit
Tennessee Valley Authority
Improved economic conditions in a poor rural region, it is an example of federal interventions to meet regional needs
Social Security Act
Extended support to the elderly and retired citizens
Federal Deposit Insurance Corp
Restored public confidence in banks, safeguarded savings accounts
Securities and Exchange Commissions
Regulates certain economic activities of banks and the stock market, limited speculations, corrected abuses that led to the stock market crash
Critics of New Deal
People might rely on the New Deal too much, Business leaders were not happy, too much federal money was being spent on this
Impacts of New Deal
Expansion of power of the federal government, raised national debt, government should be more involved in the lives of people
Pearl Harbor
Japanese attack on a US naval base resulted in the entry of the US in WWII
Lend Lease Act, Cash Carry Act, Destoryers for Naval Bases
Efforts to assist allied powers without formally declaring war, shift toward more direct involvement
GI Bill
Extended education, housing opputunities for war veterans
Saving food or supplies for the troops
War/Liberty Bonds
Helped finance the war effort
Manhattan Project
Development of the atomic bomb
Korematsu v. US
Japanese Americans were considered threat to national security they were put in camps, justified limitations of civil liberties in the interest of the nation
Truman Doctrine
Designed to contain communism
Marshall Plan
Economic aid to countries who were threatened by commnuiosm
United Nations
WWII peace keeping organization, successful to providing aid to the poor and needy
Baby Boom
Population burst caused by the delay of marriages during WWII
Interstate Highway Act
Increased suburban growth, also created easier methods of transportation in case of emergency or evacuation needs
Iron Curtain
boundary of Soviet domination in Europe during the Cold War
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Formed in order to protect Western Europe from the Soviet Union and provide collective security against communist aggression
Berlin Airlift
Soviet forces cut off Berlin from the western world causing the US to airlift supplies to west berlin
During the Red Scare this person led a witch hunt for communists within the US government during the early 1950s
Korean War
Conflict between Communist North and Free South, North invaded at the 38th parallel, truce called with little gains on either side
Vietnam War
Conflict between Communist North and Free South, resulted in a long drawn out conflict, highly protested in the US, and the end it fell to communism
Domino Theory
idea that if one country falls to communism others around it will as well, used to justify the Vietnam War
War Powers Act of 1973
Limited the presidents ability to send troops into combat abroad, passed by congress as a response to the US involvement in Vietnam
Peace Corps
Created by JFK meant to provide support for developing nations
Bay of Pigs
Failed US invasion of Cuba, embarrassed the US
Cuban Missile Crisis
SU placed nuclear weapons in Cuba aimed at the US, JFK attempted to deal with the situation by placing a quarantine around Cuba, eventually negotiated the removal of these weapons
New Frontier
Program that was successful in expanding the US space program, wanted to get a man on the moon in 10 years, did it
Civil Disobedience
Lunch counter sitins and freedom riders are examples of these nonviolent attempts to oppose laws (most of the time segregation laws)
Martin Luther King JR
Leader of the Civil Rights Movement during the 1960s, believed in peaceful protests, bus boycott
Malcom X
Civil Rights leader during the 1950s and 60s that advocated black separatism
Rosa Parks
Practiced civil disobedience was arrested for refusing to give up her seat in the white section of a bus
Civil Rights Act 1964
Passed in effort to correct racial and gender discrimination, ended the Jim Crow Laws
Voting Rights Act of 1954
Removed the literacy test as a voting qualification to vote
Affirmative Action Programs
Main goal is to promote economic gains for minorities and women
American with Disabilities Act
Government efforts to end discrimination again elderly and disabled
Great Society
LBJ's war against poverty, domestic program, increased government commitment to the well being of the people, used social welfare programs
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
Similar to Peace Corps but was to aid the quality of lives of people within the US
Established to provide health care to the elderly
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Increased the US involvement in the Vietnam War and provided justification for the involvement in Vietnam
Miranda v. Arizona
Expanded the rights of the accused
New Jersey v. TLO
Ruled that in schools, administration and teachers had the rights to search belongings of students, civil liberties can be limited in schools
Tinker v. Des Moines CSD
Students were allowed to wear arm bands in schools, peaceful silent protests about Vietnam was not harming anyone, civil liberties can be protected in schools
Lessening of Cold War tensions between the US and SU
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
Part of the policy of detente, attempted to reduce the weapons each country contains
Watergate Scandal
Break in at the head quarters of the Democratic Committee led to an investigation, Nixon was never accused himself, but his advisers were, led to his impeachment/resignation
US v. Nixon
Resulted in the limitation of the president's power to executive privilege (president is NOT above the law)
Camp David Accords
Carter succeeded in providing a foundation for a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel, significant because they represented the first peace agreement between Israel and an Arab nation
Supply-Side Economics
Lowered taxes on personal and business income, supported economic change favoring big businesses, used tax cuts to encourage economic growth
Trickle Down Economics
Believed that economic growth depends on making increased amounts of capital available to business
New Federalism
Plans to change the relationship between the states and the Federal Government, lessen the federal governments involvement in the everyday peoples lives and federal funding
Deficit Spending
Se\pending more than you're making
North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA
Increased commerce and eliminated tariffs, encouraged countries to participate in the global economy
George Bush Senior
Committed troops to the Persian Gulf, liberated Kuwait from Iraq control