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Theories Final - Chapter 15 Summary Tables
Terms in this set (120)
Psychoanalytic - Basic Philosophies
Human beings are basically determined by psychic energy and by early experiences.
Unconscious motives and conflicts are central in present behavior.
Early development is of critical importance because later personality problems have their roots in repressed childhood conflicts.
Adlerian - Basic Philosophies
Humans are motivated by social interest, striving toward goals, by inferiority and superiority, and by dealing with the tasks of life.
Emphasis is on the individual's positive capacities to live in society cooperatively.
People have the capacity to interpret, influence, and create events. Each person at an early age creates a unique style of life, which tends to remain relatively constant throughout life.
Existential Therapy - Basic Philosophies
The central focus is on the nature of the human condition, which includes a capacity for self-awareness, freedom of choice to decide one's fate, responsibility, anxiety, the search for meaning, being alone and being in relation with others, striving for authenticiy, and facing living and dying.
Person-Centered Therapy - Basic Philosophies
Positive view of people; we have an inclination toward becoming fully functioning.
In the context of the therapeutic relationship, the client experiences feelings that were previously denied to awareness.
The client moves toward increased awareness, spontaneity, trust in self, and inner-directedness.
Gestalt Therapy - Basic Philosophies
The person strives for wholeness and integration of thinking, feeling, and behaving.
Nondeterministic in that the person is viewed as having the capacity to recognize how earlier influences are related to present difficulties.
As an experiential approach, it is grounded in the here and now and emphasizes awareness, personal choice, and responsibility.
Behavior Therapy - Basic Philosophies
Learning is key.
We are both the product and the producer of the environment.
Traditionally based on classical and operant principles; contemporary practice has branched out in many directions, including mindfulness and acceptance approaches.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Basic Philosophies
Individuals tend to incorporate faulty thinking, which leads to emotional and behavioral disturbances.
Thoughts are the major determinants of how we feel and act.
A psychoeducational model, which emphasizes therapy as a learning process, including acquiring and practicing new skills, learning new ways of thinking, and acquiring more effective ways of coping with problems.
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Basic Philosophies
This approach assumes that we need quality relationships to be happy.
Psychological problems are the result of our resisting control by others or of our attempt to control others.
Feminist Therapy - Basic Philosophies
Traditional theories are criticized to the degree that they are androcentric, gendercentric, ethnocentric, heterosexist, and intrapsychic.
Constructs of this theory include being gender fair, flexible, interactionist, and life-span-oriented.
A systems approach that recognizes the cultural, social, and political factors that contribute to an individual's problems.
Postmodern Approaches - Basic Philosophies
Based on the premise that there are multiple realities and multiple truths; rejects the idea that reality is external and can be grasped.
People create meaning in their lives through conversations with others.
This approach avoids pathologizing clients, takes a dim view of diagnosis, avoids searching for underlying causes of problems, and places a high value on discovering client's strengths and resources.
Rather than talking about problems, the focus of therapy is on creating solutions in the present and the future.
Family Systems Therapy - Basic Philosophies
Clients are connected to a living system; a change in one part of the system will result in a change in other parts.
The system provides the context for understanding how individuals function in relationship to others and how they behave.
An individual's dysfunctional behavior grows out of the interactional unit of the family and out of larger systems as well.
Psychoanalytic - Key Concepts
Normal personality development is based on successful resolution and integration of psychosexual stages of development.
Faulty personality development is the result of inadequate resolution of some specific stage.
Anxiety is the result of repression of basic conflicts.
Unconscious processes are centrally related to current behavior.
Adlerian Therapy - Key Concepts
The unity of personality, the need to view people from their subjective perspective, and the importance of life goals that give direction to behavior.
People are motivated by social interest and by finding goals to give life meaning.
Striving for significance and superiority, developing a unique lifestyle, and understanding the family constellation
Therapy is a matter of providing encouragement and assisting clients in changing their cognitive perspective and behavior.
Existential Therapy - Key Concepts
Essentially an experiential approach to counseling rather than a firm theoretical model, it stresses core human conditions.
Interest is on the present and on what one is becoming. The approach has a future orientation and stresses self-awareness before action.
Person-Centered Therapy - Key Concepts
The client has the potential to become aware of problems and the means to resolve them. Faith is placed in the client's capacity for self-direction.
Mental health is a congruence of ideal self and real self. Maladjustment is the result of a discrepancy between what one wants to be and what one is.
In therapy, attention is given to the present moment and on experiencing and expressing feelings.
Gestalt Therapy - Key Concepts
Emphasis in on the "what" and "how" of experiencing in the here and now to help clients accept all aspects of themselves.
Holism, figure-formation process, awareness, unfinished business and avoidance, contact, and energy
Behavior Therapy - Key Concepts
Focus is on overt behavior, precision in specifying goals of treatment, development of specific treatment plans, and objective evaluation of therapy outcomes.
Therapy is based on the principles of learning theory; normal behavior is learned through reinforcement and imitation. Abnormal behavior is the result of faulty learning.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Key Concepts
Psychological problems may be rooted in childhood, but they are reinforced by present ways of thinking.
A person's belief system and thinking is the primary cause of disorders; internal dialogue plays a central role in one's behavior.
Clients focus examining faulty assumptions and misconceptions and on replacing these with effective beliefs.
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Key Concepts
Basic focus on what clients are doing and how to get them to evaluate whether their present actions are working for them.
People are mainly motivated to satisfy their needs, especially the need for significant relationships.
This approach rejects the medical model, the notion of transference, the unconscious, and dwelling in one's past.
Feminist Therapy - Key Concepts
The personal is political; therapists have a commitment to social change; women's voices and ways of knowing are valued and women's experiences are honored
The counseling relationship is egalitarian; therapy focuses on strengths and a reformulated definition of psychological distress, and all types of oppression are recognized
Postmodern Approaches - Key Concepts
Therapy tends to be brief and addresses the present and the future.
The person is not the problem; the problem is the problem. Emphasis is on externalizing the problem and looking for exceptions to the problem.
Therapy consists of a collaborative dialogue in which the therapist and the client co-create solutions.
By identifying instances when the problem did not exist, clients can create new meanings for themselves and fashion a new life story.
Family Systems Therapy - Key Concepts
Focus is on communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal; problems in relationships are likely to be passed on from generation to generation.
Differentiation, triangles, power coalitions, family-of-origin dynamics, functional vs dysfunctional interaction patterns, and dealing with here-and-now interactions
The present is more important than exploring past experiences
Psychoanalytic - Goals of Therapy
To make the unconscious conscious.
To reconstruct the basic personality.
To assist clients in reliving earlier experiences and working through repressed conflicts.
To achieve intellectual and emotional awareness
Adlerian Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To challenge client's basic premises and life goals.
To offer encouragement so individuals can develop socially useful goals and increase social interest.
To develop the client's sense of belonging.
Existential Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To help people see that they are free and to become aware of their possibilities.
To challenge them to recognize that they are responsible for events that they formerly thought were happening to them.
To identify factors that block freedom.
Person-Centered Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To provide a safe climate conducive to client's self-exploration.
To help clients recognize blocks to growth and experience aspects of self that were formerly denied or distorted.
To enable them to move toward openness, greater trust in self, willingness to be a process, and increased spontaneity and aliveness.
To find meaning in life and to experience life fully.
To become more self-directed.
Gestalt Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To assist clients in gaining awareness of moment-to-moment experiencing and to expand the capacity to make choices.
To foster integration of the self.
Behavior Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To eliminate maladaptive behaviors and learn more effective behaviors.
To identify factors that influence behavior and find out what can be done about problematic behavior.
To encourage clients to take an active and collaborative role in clearly setting treatment goals and evaluating how well these goals are being met.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To teach clients to confront faulty beliefs with contradictory evidence that they gather and evaluate.
To help clients seek out their faulty beliefs and minimize them.
To become aware of automatic thoughts and to change them.
To assist clients in identifying their inner strengths, and to explore the kind of life they would like to have.
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To help people become more effective in meeting all of their psychological needs.
To enable clients to get reconnected with the people they have chosen to put into their quality worlds.
Feminist Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To bring about transformation both in the individual client and in society.
To assist clients in recognizing, claiming, and using their personal power to free themselves from the limitations of gender-role socialization.
To confront all forms of institutional policies that discriminate or oppress on any basis.
Postmodern Approaches - Goals of Therapy
To change the way clients view problems and what they can do about these concerns.
To collaboratively establish specific, clear, concrete, realistic, and observable goals leading to increased positive change.
To help clients create a self-identity grounded on competence and resourcefulness so they can resolve present and future concerns.
To assist clients in viewing their lives in positive ways, rather than being problem saturated.
Family Systems Therapy - Goals of Therapy
To help clients gain awareness of patterns in relationships that are not working well and to create new ways of interacting.
To identify how a client's problematic behavior may serve a function or purpose for the family.
Psychoanalytic Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Therapist remains anonymous, and clients develop projections toward him or her. The focus is on reducing the resistances that develop in working with transference and on establishing more rational control.
Clients undergo long-term analysis, engage in free association to uncover conflicts, and gain insight by talking. The therapist makes interpretations to teach clients the meaning of current behavior as it relates to the past.
Contemporary relational therapy, the relationship is central and emphasis is given to here-and-now dimensions of this relationship.
Adlerian Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
The emphasis is on joint responsibility, on mutually determining goals, on mutual trust and respect, and on equality.
The focus in on identifying, exploring, and disclosing mistaken goals and faulty assumptions within the person's lifestyle.
Existential Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Therapist's main tasks are to accurately grasp the client's being in the world and to establish a personal and authentic encounter with them.
The immediacy of the client-therapist relationship and the authenticity of the here-and-now encounter are stressed. Both client and therapist can be changed by the encounter.
Person-Centered Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
The relationship is of primary importance.
The qualities of the therapist, including genuineness, warmth, accurate empathy, respect, and being nonjudgmental - and communication of these attitudes to clients - are stressed.
Clients use this genuine relationship with the therapist to help them transfer what they learn to other relationships.
Gestalt Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Central importance is given to the I/Thou relationship and the quality of the therapist's presence.
The therapist's attitudes and behavior count more than the techniques used. The therapist does not interpret for clients but assists them in developing the means to make their own interpretations.
Clients identify and work on unfinished business from the past that interferes with current functioning.
Behavior Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
The therapist is active and directive and functions as a teacher or mentor in helping clients learn more effective behavior.
Clients must be active in the process and experiment with new behaviors.
A quality client-therapist relationship is not viewed as sufficient to bring about change but is considered essential for implementing procedures learned.
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Therapist functions as a teacher and the client as a student. Therapist is highly directive and teaches the client an A-B-C model of changing their cognitions.
Cognitive Therapy (CT) - Therapeutic Relationship
The focus is on a collaborative relationship.
Using Socratic dialogue, the therapist assists clients in identifying dysfunctional beliefs and discovering alternative rules for living.
Therapist promotes corrective experiences that lead to learning new skills. Clients gain insight into their problems and then must actively practice changing self-defeating thinking and acting.
Strengths-Based CBT - Therapeutic Relationship
Active incorporation of client strengths encourages full engagment in therapy and often provides avenues for change that otherwise would be missed.
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
A fundamental task of the therapist is to create a good relationship with the client, then engage clients in an evaluation of all of their relationships with respect to what they want and how effective they are in getting this.
Therapists find out what the clients want, ask what they are choosing to do, invite them to evaluate present behavior, help them make plans for change, and get them to make a commitment.
The therapist is the client's advocate, as long as the client is willing to attempt to behave responsibly.
Feminist Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Based on empowerment and egalitarianism; therapists actively break down the hierarchy of power and reduce artificial barriers by engaging in appropriate self-disclosure and teaching clients about the therapy process.
Therapists strive to create a collaborative relationship in which clients can become their own experts.
Postmodern Approaches (General) - Therapeutic Relationship
Therapy is a collaborative partnership. Clients are viewed as the experts on their own lives.
Therapists use questioning dialogue to help clients free themselves from their problem-saturated stories and create new life-affirming stories.
Solution-focused Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Therapists assume an active role in guiding the client away from problem-talk and toward solution-talk.
Clients are encouraged to explore their strengths and to create solutions that will lead to a richer future.
Narrative Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Therapist assists clients in externalizing problems and guide them in examining self-limiting stories and creating new and more liberating stories.
Family Systems Therapy - Therapeutic Relationship
Therapist functions as a teacher, coach, model, and consultant.
The clients learn ways to detect and solve problems that are keeping members stuck, and learn about patterns that have been transmitted from generation to generation.
Some approaches focus on the role of the therapist as expert; others concentrate on intensifying what is going in the here and now of the family session. All therapists using this model are concerned with the process of family interaction and teaching patterns of communication
Psychoanalytic - Techniques
Interpretation, dream analysis, free association, analysis of resistance, analysis of transference and countertransference
Techniques are designed to help clients gain access to their unconscious conflicts, which leads to insight and eventual assimilation of new material by the ego
Adlerian Therapy - Techniques
More attention is paid to the subjective experiences of clients than to using techniques.
Gathering life-history data (family constellation, early recollections, personal priorities, etc.), sharing interpretations with clients, offering encouragement, assisting clients in searching for new possibilites
Existential Therapy - Techniques
Few techniques flow from this approach because it stresses understanding first and technique second.
Therapists can borrow techniques from other approaches and incorporate them in this framework.
Diagnosis, testing, and external measurements are not deemed important.
Issues addressed are freedom and responsibility, isolation and relationships, meaning and meaninglessness, living and dying
Person-Centered Therapy - Techniques
Few techniques are used but stresses the attitudes of the therapist and a "way of being."
Therapists strive for active listening, reflection of feelings, clarification, "being there" for the client, and focusing on the moment-to-moment experiencing of the client.
This model does not include diagnostic testing, interpretation, taking a case history, or questioning and probing for information
Gestalt Therapy - Techniques
Experiments are co-created by therapist and client through an I/Thou dialogue to intensify experiencing and to integrate conflicting feelings.
Therapists have latitude to creatively invent their own experiments. Formal diagnosis and testing are not a required part of therapy.
Internal dialogue exercise, empty-chair, future projections, making the rounds, reversal exercise, rehearsal exercise, exaggeration exercise, staying with the feeling
Behavior Therapy - Techniques
Reinforcement, shaping, modeling, systematic desensitization, relaxation methods, flooding, eye movement and desensitization reprocessing, cognitive restructuring, social skills training, self-management programs, mindfulness and acceptance methods, behavioral rehearsal, and coaching - also contracts and homework
Diagnosis or assessment in done at the outset to determine a treatment plan.
Questions concentrate on "what," "how," and "when" but NOT "why"
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Techniques
Diverse methods are tailored to suit individual clients.
Active, directional, time-limited, present-centered, psychoeducational, structured therapy
Some techniques used: Socratic dialogue, collaborative empiricism, debating irrational beliefs, carrying out homework assignments, gathering data on assumptions one has made, keeping a record of activities, forming alternative interpretations, learning new coping skills, changing one's language and thinking patterns, role playing, imagery, confronting faulty beliefs, self-instructional training, and stress inoculation training.
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy
Active, directive, and didactic therapy; skillful questioning is central
Various techniques are used to get clients to evaluate what they are presently doing to see if they are willing to change. If clients decide that their present behavior is not effective, they develop a specific plan for change and make a commitment to follow through
Consciousness-raising techniques are aimed at helping clients recognize the impact of gender-role socialization on their lives.
Gender-role analysis and intervention, power analysis and intervention, demystifying therapy, bibliotherapy, journal writing, therapist self-disclosure, assertiveness training, reframing and relabeling, cognitive restructuring, identifying and challenging untested beliefs, role playing, psychodramatic methods, group work, and social action
Solution-Focused Therapy - Techniques
Change-talk, with emphasis on times in a client's life when the problem was not a problem; creative use of questioning, the miracle question, and scaling questions
Narrative Therapy - Techniques
Listening to a client's problem-saturated story without getting stuck; externalizing and naming the problem; externalizing conversations; discovering clues to competence; letter writing from therapist to client to assist the client in finding an audience that will support their changes and new stories
Family Systems Therapy - Techniques
Genograms, teaching, asking questions, joining the family, tracking sequences, family mapping, reframing, restructuring, enactments, and settings boundaries
Techniques may be experiential, cognitive, or behavioral in nature; most are designed to bring about change in a short time
Psychoanalysis - Practical Applications
Candidates for this therapy include professionals who want to become therapists, people who have had intensive therapy and want to go further, and those who are in psychological pain.
Not recommended for self-centered and impulsive individuals or for people with psychotic disorders.
Techniques can be applied to individual and group therapy.
Adlerian Therapy - Practical Applications
Because the approach is based on a growth model, it is applicable to such varied spheres of life as child guidance, parent-child counseling, marital and family therapy, individual counseling with all age groups, correctional and rehabilitation counseling, group counseling, substance abuse programs, and brief counseling.
It is ideally suited to preventative care and alleviating a broad range of conditions that interfere with growth.
Existential Therapy - Practical Applications
This approach is especially suited to people facing a developmental crisis or a transition in life.
Also for those with concerns like making choices, dealing with freedom and responsibility, coping with guilt and anxiety, making sense of life, and finding values
Can be applied to both individual and group counseling, and to couples and family therapy, crisis intervention, and community mental health work
Person-Centered Therapy - Practical Applications
Has wide applicability to individual and group counseling.
Especially well-suited for the initial phase of crisis intervention work.
Principles of this therapy have been applied to couple and family therapy, community programs, administration and management, and human relations training. It is a useful approach for teaching, parent-child relations, and for working with groups of people from diverse cultural backgrounds.
Gestalt Therapy - Practical Applications
Addresses a wide range of problems and populations: crisis intervention, treatment of a range of psychosomatic disorders, couples and family therapy, awareness training of mental health professionals, behavior problems in children, and teaching and learning.
Well suited to both individual and group counseling.
Methods are powerful catalysts for opening up feelings and getting clients into contact with their present-centered experience.
Behavior Therapy - Practical Applications
A pragmatic approach based on empirical validation of results.
Enjoys a wide applicability to individual, group, couples, and family counseling.
Some problems to which the approach is well suited are phobic disorders, depression, trauma, sexual disorders, children's behavioral disorder, stuttering, and prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Beyond clinical practice, its principles are applied in fields such as pediatrics, stress management, behavioral medicine, education, and geriatrics
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Practical Applications
Has been widely applied to treatment of depression, anxiety, relationship problems, stress management, skill training, substance abuse, assertion training, eating disorders, panic attacks, performance anxiety, and social phobias.
Especially useful for assisting people in modifying their cognitions. Many self-help approaches utilize its principles.
Can be applied to a wide range of client populations with a variety of specific problems
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Practical Applications
Geared to teaching people ways of using choice theory in everyday living to increase effective behaviors.
Has been applied to individual counseling with a wide range of clients, group counseling, working with youthful law offenders, and couples and family therapy.
In some instances it is well-suited to brief therapy and crisis intervention
Feminist Therapy - Practical Applications
Principles and techniques can be applied to a range of therapeutic modalities such as individual therapy, relationship counseling, family therapy, group counseling, and community intervention.
The approach can be applied to both women and men with the goal of bringing about empowerment.
Postmodern Approaches (General) - Practical Applications
Can be applied to working with children, adolescents, adults, couples, families, and the community in a wide variety of settings.
Group and school counseling are specifically suited to this approach
Solution-Focused Therapy - Practical Applications
Well suited for people with adjustment disorders and for problems of anxiety and depression.
Narrative Therapy - Practical Applications
Used for a broad range of human difficulties including eating disorders, family distress, depression, and relationship concerns.
Family Systems Therapy - Practical Applications
Useful for dealing with marital distress, problems of communication among family members, power struggles, crisis situations in the family, helping individuals attain their potential, and enhancing the overall functioning of the family
Psychoanalysis - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Its focus on family dynamics is appropriate for working with many cultural groups. The therapist's formality appeals to clients who expect professional distance.
Notion of ego defense is helpful in understanding inner dynamics and dealing with environmental stressors.
Psychoanalysis - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
Its focus on insight, intrapsychic dynamics, and long-term treatment is often not valued by clients who prefer to learn coping skills for dealing with pressing daily concerns. Internal focus is often in conflict with cultural values that stress an interpersonal and environmental focus
Adlerian Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Its focus on social interest, helping others, collectivsim, pursuing meaning in life, importance of family, goal-orientation, and belonging is congruent with the values of many cultures.
Focus on person-in-the-environment allows for cultural factors to be explored.
Adlerian Therapy - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
This approach's detailed interview about one's family background can conflict with cultures that have injunctions against disclosing family matters.
Some clients may view the counselor as an authority who will provide answers to problems, which conflicts with the egalitarian, person-to-person spirit as a way to reduce social distance.
Existential Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus is on understanding client's phenomenological world, including cultural background.
This approach leads to empowerment in an oppressive society and can help clients examine their options for change within the context of their cultural realities.
This approach is particularly suited to counseling diverse clients because of the philosophical foundation that emphasizes the human condition.
Existential Therapy - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
Values of individuality, freedom, autonomy, and self-realization often conflict with cultural values of collectivism, respect for tradition, deference to authority, and interdependence.
Some may be deterred by the absence of specific techniques. Others will expect more focus on surviving in their world.
Person-Centered Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus is on breaking cultural barriers and facilitating open dialogue among diverse cultural populations.
Main strengths are respect for client's values, active listening, welcoming of differences, nonjudgmental attitude, understanding, willingness to allow clients to determine what will be explored in sessions, and prizing cultural pluralism.
Person-Centered Therapy - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
Some of the core values of this approach may not be congruent with the client's culture. Lack of counselor direction and structure are unacceptable for clients who are seeking help and immediate answers from a knowledgeable professional.
Gestalt Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Its focus on expressing oneself nonverbally is congruent with those cultures that look beyond words for messages.
Provides many experiments in working with clients who have cultural injunctions against freely expressing feelings.
Can help to overcome language barrier with bilingual clients.
Focus on bodily expressions is a suitable way to help clients recognize their conflicts
Gestalt Therapy - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
Clients who have been culturally conditioned to be emotionally reserved may not embrace this approach's experiments.
Some may not see how "being aware of present experiencing" will lead to solving their problems.
Behavior Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus on behavior, rather than on feelings, is compatible with many cultures.
Strengths include a collaborative relationship between counselor and client in working toward mutually agreed-upon goals, continual assessment to determine if the techniques are suited to client's unique situations, assisting clients in learning practical skills, and educational focus, and stress on self-management strategies.
Behavior Therapy - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
Family members may not value client's newly acquired assertive style, so clients much be taught how to cope with resistance by others.
Counselors need to help clients assess possible consequences of making changes.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus is on a collaborative approach that offers clients opportunities to express their areas of concern.
The psychoeducational dimensions are often useful in exploring cultural conflicts and teaching new behavior.
The emphasis on thinking is likely to be acceptable to many clients. The focus on teaching and learning tends to avoid the stigma of mental illness.
Clients are likely to value the active and directive stance of the therapist
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Limitations to Multicultural Counseling
Before too quickly attempting to change the beliefs and actions of clients, it is essential for the therapist to understand and respect their world.
Some clients may have serious reservations about questioning their basic cultural values and beliefs.
Clients could become dependent on the therapist choosing appropriate ways to solve problems.
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus is on clients making their own evaluation of behavior - including how they respond to their culture.
Through personal assessment, clients can determine the degree to which their needs and wants are being satisfied. They can find a balance between retaining their own ethnic identity and integrating some of the values and practices of the dominant society.
Choice theory/Reality Therapy - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
This approach stresses taking charge of one's own life, yet some clients are more interested in changing their external environment.
Counselors need to appreciate the role of discrimination and racism and help clients deal with social and political realities.
Feminist Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus is on both individual change and social transformation.
A key contribution is that both the women's movement and the multicultural movement have called attention to the negative impact of discrimination and oppression for both women and men.
Emphasizes the influence of expected cultural roles and explores client's satisfaction with and knowledge of these roles
Feminist Therapy - Limitations to Multicultural Counseling
This model has been criticized for its bias toward the values of White, middle-class, heterosexual women, which are not applicable to many other groups of women not to men.
Therapists need to asses with their clients the price of making significant personal change, which may result in isolation from extended family as clients assume new roles and make life changes.
Postmodern Approaches - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus is on the social and cultural context of behavior.
Stories that are being authored in the therapy office need to be anchored in the social world in which the client lives.
Therapists do not make assumptions about people and honor each client's unique story and cultural background.
Therapists take an active role in challenging social and cultural injustices that lead to oppression of certain groups.
Therapy becomes a process of liberation from oppressive cultural values and enables clients to become active agents of their destinies.
Postmodern Approaches - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
Some clients come to therapy wanting to talk about their problems and my be put off by the insistence on talking about exceptions to their problems.
Clients may view the therapist as an expert and be reluctant to view themselves as experts.
Certain clients may doubt the helpfulness of a therapist who assumes a "not-knowing" position.
Family Systems Therapy - Contributions to Multicultural Counseling
Focus in on the family or community system. Many ethnic and cultural groups place value on the role of the extended family, and many therapies deal with extended family members and with support systems.
Networking is a part of the process, which is congruent with the values of many clients.
There is a greater chance for individual change if other family members are supportive.
This approach offers ways of working toward the health of the family unit and the welfare of each member.
Family Systems Therapy - Limitations in Multicultural Counseling
This approach rests on value assumptions that are not congruent with the values of clients from some cultures.
Western concepts such as individuation, self-actualization, self-determination, independence, and self-expression may be foreign to some clients.
In some cultures, admitting problems within the family is shameful. The value of "keeping problems within the family" may make it difficult to explore conflicts openly.
Psychoanalysis - Contributions
More than any other system, this approach has generated controversy as well as exploration and has stimulated further thinking and development of therapy.
It has provided a detailed and comprehensive description of personality structure and functioning. It has brought into prominence factors such as the unconscious as a determinant of behavior and the role of trauma during the first six years of life.
It has developed several techniques for tapping the unconscious and shed light on the dynamics of transference and countertransference, resistance, anxiety, and the mechanisms of ego defense.
Adlerian Therapy - Contributions
A key contribution is the influence that this approach's concepts have had on other systems and the integration of these concepts into various contemporary therapies.
This is one of the first approaches to therapy that was humanistic, unified, holistic, and goal-oriented and that put an emphasis on social and psychological factors.
Existential Therapy - Contributions
Its major contribution is recognition of the need for a subjective approach based on a complete view of the human condition.
It calls attention to the need for a philosophical statement on what it means to be a person.
Stress of the I/Thou relationship lessens the chances of dehumanizing therapy. It provides a perspective for understanding anxiety, guilt, freedom, death, isolation, and commitment.
Person-Centered Therapy - Contributions
Clients take an active stance and assume responsibility for the direction of therapy.
This unique approach has been subjected to empirical testing, and as a result both theory and methods have been modified. It is an open system.
People without advanced training can benefit by translating the therapeutic conditions to bother their personal and professional lives. Basic concepts are straightforward and easy to grasp and apply.
It is a foundation for building a trusting relationship, applicable to all therapies.
Gestalt Therapy - Contributions
The emphasis on direct experiencing and doing rather than on merely talking about feelings provides a perspective on growth and enhancement, not merely a treatment of disorders.
It uses client's behavior as the basis for making them aware of their inner creative potential.
The approach to dreams is a unique, creative tool to help clients discover basic conflicts. Therapy is viewed as an existential encounter; it is process-oriented, not technique-oriented. It recognizes nonverbal behavior as a key to understanding.
Behavior Therapy - Contributions
Emphasis on assessment and evaluation techniques, thus providing a basis for accountable practice.
Specific problems are identified, and clients are kept informed about progress toward their goals. The approach has demonstrated effectiveness in many areas of human functioning.
The roles of the therapist as reinforcer, model, teacher, and consultant are explicit.
The approach has undergone exptensive expansion, and research literature abounds. No longer is it as mechanistic approach, for it now makes room for cognitive factors and encourages self-directed programs for behavioral change.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Contributions
Major contributions include emphasis on a comprehensive therapeutic practice; numerous cognitive, emotive, and behavioral techniques; an openness to incorporating techniques from other approaches; and a methodology for challenging and changing faulty or negative thinking.
Most forms can be integrated into other mainstream therapies.
REBT - Contributions
Makes full use of action-oriented homework, carious psychoeducational methods, and keeping records of progress.
Cognitive Therapy - Contributions
A structured therapy that has a good track record for treating depression and anxiety in a short time.
Strengths-Based CBT - Contributions
A form of positive psychology that addresses the resources within the client for change
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Contributions
This is a positive approach with an action orientation that relies on simple and clear concepts that are easily grasped in many helping professions. It can be used by teachers, nurses, ministers, educators, social workers, and counselors.
Due to direct methods, it appeals to many clients who are often seen as resistant to therapy. It is a short-term approach that can be applied to a diverse population, and it has been a significant force in challenging the medical model of therapy.
Feminist Therapy - Contributions
This perspective is responsible for encouraging increasing numbers of women to question gender stereotypes and to reject limited views of what a woman is expected to be. It is paving the way for gender-sensitive practice and bringing attention to the gendered uses of power in relationships.
The unified voice brought attention to the extent and implications of child abuse, incest, rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence.
The principles of this system and its interventions can be incorporated into other therapy approaches.
Postmodern Approaches - Contributions
The brevity of these approaches fit well with the limitations imposed by a managed care structure. The emphasis on client strengths and competence appeals to clients who want to create solutions and revise their life stories in a positive direction.
Clients are not blamed for their problems but are helped to understand how they might relate in more satisfying ways to such problems.
A strength of these approaches is the question format that invites clients to view themselves in new and more effective ways.
Family Systems Therapy - Contributions
From a systemic perspective, neither the individual nor the family is blamed for a particular dysfunction.
The system is empowered the process of identifying and exploring interactional patterns. Working with an entire unit provides a new perspective on understanding and working through both individual problems and relationship concerns.
By exploring one's family of origin, there are increased opportunities to resolve other conflicts in systems outside of the family.
Psychoanalysis - Limitations
Requires lengthy training for therapists and much time and expense for clients.
The model stresses biological and instinctual factors to the neglect of social, cultural, and interpersonal ones. Its methods are less applicable for solving specific daily life problems of clients and may not be appropriate for some ethnic and cultural groups.
Many clients lack the degree of ego strength needed for regressive and reconstructive therapy. It may be inappropriate for certain counseling settings.
Adlerian Therapy - Limitations
Weak in terms of precision, testability, and empirical validity. Few attempts have been made to validate the basic concepts by scientific methods.
Tends to oversimplify some complex human problems and is based heavily on common sense.
Existential Therapy - Limitations
Many basic concepts are fuzzy and ill-defined, making its general framework abstract at times.
Lacks a systemic statement of principles and practices of therapy. Has limited applicability to lower functioning and nonverbal clients and to clients in extreme crisis who need direction.
Person-Centered Therapy - Limitations
Possible danger from the therapist who remains passive and inactive, limiting responses to reflection.
Many clients feel a need for greater direction, more structure, and more techniques. Clients in crisis may need more directive measures.
Applied to individual counseling, some cultural groups will expect more counselor activity.
Gestalt Therapy - Limitations
Techniques lead to intense emotional expression; if these feelings are not explored and if cognitive work is not done, clients are likely to be left unfinished and will not have a sense of integration of their learning.
Clients who have difficulty using imagination may not profit from certain experiments.
Behavior Therapy - Limitations
Major criticisms are that it may change behavior but not feelings; that it ignores the relational factors in therapy; that it does not provide insight; that it ignores historical causes of present behavior; that it involves control by the therapist; and that it is limited in its capacity to address certain aspects of the human condition.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy - Limitations
Tends to play down emotions, does not focus on exploring the unconscious or underlying conflicts, de-emphasizes the values of insight, and sometimes does not give enough weight to the client's past.
May be too structured for some clients.
Choice Theory/Reality Therapy - Limitations
Discounts the therapeutic value of exploration of the client's past, dreams, the unconscious, early childhood experiences, and transference.
The approach is limited to less complex problems. It is a problem-solving therapy that tends to discourage exploration of deeper emotional issues.
Feminist Therapy - Limitations
A possible limitation is the potential for therapists to impose a new set of values on clients - such as striving for equality, power in relationships, defining oneself, freedom to pursue a career outside the home, and the right to an education.
Therapists need to keep in mind that clients are their own best experts, which means it is up to them to decide which values to live by.
Postmodern Approaches - Limitations
There is little empirical validation of the effectiveness of therapy outcomes.
Some critics contend that these approaches endorse cheerleading and an overly positive perspective. Some are critical of the stance taken by most therapists in this system regarding assessment and diagnosis, and also react negatively to the "not-knowing" stance of the therapist.
Because some of the solution-focused and narrative techniques are relatively easy to learn, practitioners may use these interventions in a mechanical way or implement these techniques without sound rationale.
Family Systems Therapy - Limitations
Limitations include problems in being able to involve all of the members in the therapy. Some members may be resistant to changing the structure of the system.
Therapist's self-knowledge and willingness to work on their own family of origin issues is crucial, for the potential for countertransference is high.
It is essential that the therapist be well trained, receive quality supervision, and be competent in assessing and treating individuals in a family context.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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