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Biology chapter 1
Terms in this set (83)
What are the 8 basic features of life?
1. Cells are the simplest units of life
2. Living organisms use energy
3. Living organisms interact with their environment
4. Living organisms maintain homeostasis
5. Living organisms grow and develop
6. The genetic material provides a blueprint for reproduction
7. Populations of organisms evolve from one generation to the next
8. All species (past and present) are related by an evolutionary history
Structure determines ________.
What are the last 4 principles that apply to all fields of biology?
1. Structure determines function
2. New properties of life emerge from complex interactions
3. Biology is an experimental science
4. Biology affects our society
The term ______ can be applied to all living things.
The simplest unit of life is the ______.
What is the Cell Theory? (3 points)
1. all organisms are composed of cells 2. cells are the smallest units of life 3. new cells come from pre-existing cells via cell division
Cells carry out a variety of chemical reactions that are responsible for the breakdown of nutrients. Such reactions often release energy in a process called ______.
Chemical reactions involved with the break-down and synthesis of cellular molecules are collectively known as ______.
What kind of organisms use photosynthesis?
plants, algae, and certain bacteria
Plants, algae, and certain bacteria can directly harness light energy to produce their own nutrients in a process known as _____.
What is homeostasis?
living cells and organisms regulate their cells and bodies to maintain relatively stable internal conditions through homeostasis
What is growth?
producing more or larger cells
What is development?
a series of changes in the state of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism, eventually resulting in organisms with a defined set of characteristics
All organisms must _____ or generate offspring.
All living organisms contain genetic material composed of _____. What does this genetic material do?
DNA; provides a blueprint for organization, development, and function of living things
DNA is ______, which means that offspring inherit DNA from their parents.
What are genes?
segments of DNA that govern the characteristics, or traits, or organisms
Most genes are transcribed into a type of _____ molecule.
Mots genes are transcribed into what kind of RNA molecule?
messenger RNA (mRNA)
Messenger RNA is translated into a ______ with a specific amino acid sequence.
What is a protein composed of?
one or more polypeptides
The structures and functions of _____ are largely responsible for the traits of living organisms.
________ refers to a heritable change in a population of organisms from generation to generation.
The term genome refers to what?
the complete genetic composition of an organism or species
Most genes do what?
The term proteome refers to what?
the complete protein composition of a cell or organism
When individual components in an organism interact with each other or with the external environment to create novel structures and functions, the resulting characteristics are called _____.
Biologists use the term _______ to describe the study of how new properties of life arise by complex interactions of its components.
The levels of organization from smallest to largest:
1. atoms 2. molecules and macromolecules 3. cells 4. tissues 5. organs 6. organism 7. population 8. community 9. ecosystem 10. biosphere
What is the smallest unit of an element that has the chemical properties of the element?
Atoms bond with each other to form what?
Many molecules bonded together to form a polymer such as a polypeptide is called a ____.
What is a cell?
The simplest unit of life. It is surrounded by a membrane and contains a variety of molecules and macromolecules.
An _____ is composed of two or more types of tissues.
All living things can be called _______.
What is a species?
a related group of organisms that share a distinctive form and set of attributes in nature
What is a population?
a group of organisms of the same species that occupy the same environment
What is a community?
an assemblage of populations of different species
_______ are formed by interactions of a community of organisms with their physical environment.
The ______ includes all of the places on the Earth where living organisms exist.
Life on earth began as primitive cells about how many years ago?
Evolutionary change occurs by what two mechanisms?
vertical evolution and horizontal gene transfer
What is lineage?
progression of changes in a series of ancestors
What is vertical evolution?
evolution that occurs in a lineage
In vertical evolution, new species evolve from _______ ones by the accumulation of _______.
What are mutations?
heritable changes in the genetic material of organisms
What is natural selection?
when a mutation causes a beneficial change, so much that the frequency of the mutation increases in a population from one generation to the next
What is horizontal gene transfer?
the transfer of genetic material from one organism to another organism that is not offspring
What is taxonomy?
the grouping of species
All forms of life can be placed into what 3 categories (domains)?
bacteria, archaea, eukarya
Bacteria and archaea are both termed ________ because their cell structure is relatively simple.
Eukarya are ______ and have larger cells with internal compartments that serve various functions.
Eukaryotic cells have a __________, while prokaryotic cells do not.
What is a cell nucleus?
contains the genetic material and is surrounded by a membrane
What is binomial nomenclature?
a two-part description to provide each species with a unique scientific name
What three functions does the genome perform?
1. stores information in a stable form
2. provides continuity from generation to generation
3. acts as an instrument of evolutionary change
What is genomics?
the ability to analyze the DNA sequence of genomes
What is proteomics?
the analysis of the proteome of a single species and the comparison of the proteomes of different species
In eukaryotes, where is most of the genome contained?
within chromosomes that are located inside the cell nucleus
Most genes encode _______ that contain the information to make ________.
What are the 6 general categories of proteins?
2. cell organization
4. transport proteins
5. extracellular proteins
6. cell signaling
What are enzymes?
proteins that synthesize and break down cellular molecules and macromolecules
What are zombie parasites?
a parasite that infects its host and is then able to control its behavior
What is neuroparasitology?
the study of how parasites control the nervous systems of their host
In biology, we define science as what?
the observation, identification, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomenon
What are model organisms?
organisms studied by many different researchers so they can compare their results and determine scientific principles that apply more broadly to other species
What standard approach do biologists follow to test their ideas?
What is ecology?
the study of organisms in their natural environment
What is anatomy and physiology?
the study of the structures and functions of plants and animals
What is cell biology?
the study of cells
What are molecular biologists?
biologists that focus their efforts on the structure and function of the molecules of life
What is reductionism?
reducing complex systems to simpler components as a way to understand how the system works
What is systems biology?
research aimed at understanding how emergent properties arise
What is a hypothesis?
a proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon
A useful hypothesis must make _______ and be _______.
predictions; testable and falsifiable
What is a theory?
a broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world that is substantiated by a large body of evidence
What are the two key attributes to a scientific theory?
1. consistency with a vast amount of known data
2. the ability to make many correct predictions
What is discovery-based science?
the collection and analysis of data without the need for a preconceived hypothesis
What are the 5 steps of hypothesis testing (scientific method)?
In the scientific method, data is often collected in what two parallel manners?
1. control group
2. experimental group
Valid experiments are _________.
An analysis of genomes and proteomes helps us to understand what?
how information at the molecular level relates to the characteristics of individuals and how they survive in their native environments
In binomial nomenclature, the first word is the ______, while the second word is the ______.
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