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BIOL 215: Test 4: Reproductive
Terms in this set (165)
Why does the reproductive system exist?
for the survival , not of the individual, but of the species
What is a gamete?
reproductive cell that contains half the normal content of chromosomal DNA
What is fertilization?
the fusion of male and female gametes to form a zygote
What are the gonads?
(testes and ovaries) produce gametes
Where are the gametes stored and transported?
What are the 3 ducts of the male reproductive system?
What are the accessory organs and external genitalia of the male reproductive system?
seminal vesicles (seminal gland)
How thick is the skin that covers the scrotum and the penis?
about 50 mm thick (very thin)
where does the vas deferens transport sperm?
from the testicle to the urethra
What do the testes descend through?
the inguinal canal
A portion of what structure pinches off to become a serous membrane (the tunica vaginalis) surrounding the testes?
Why are the testes located outside of the body?
because the sperm cannot develop at body temperature
What are the two muscles in the scrotum?
Dartos muscle and Cremaster muscle
What do the dartos and cremaster muscles regulate?
temperature of the testes
What is the function of the Dartos muscle?
smooth muscle that wrinkles the skin of the scrotal sac (increasing or decreasing surface are to radiate or conserve heat)
What is the function of the cremaster muscle?
a skeletal muscle that lifts the testes closer to body cavity to warm them, or drop them farther from the body to cool them
What are some key characteristics of the cremaster muscle?
-originates and inserts at the same location
-no functional homologous muscle in the female
-a skeletal muscle NOT under voluntary control
Where does the cremaster muscle originate and insert?
at the inguinal ligament
What is the wall called that separates the scrotum internally into two chambers?
the Scrotal Septum (visible externally as the scrotal raphe)
What 3 things surround the testes?
tunica vaginalis, cremaster muscle, and scrotal fascia
what connects the testis to the epididymis?
Where does sperm develop?
in the seminiferous tubules
Where do seminiferous tubules from different lobules merge into a network?
Where does spermatogenesis occur?
within the seminiferous tubules
What are interstitial cells?
cells between seminiferous tubules that produce androgen (male sex hormone)
What are sustenacular cells?
cells against the interior wall of the seminiferous tubules (surrounding sperm) that sustain sperm production
Where does sperm go after it leaves the seminiferous tubules?
Where does sperm go after it leaves the rete testis?
epididymis via efferent ductules
Where is sperm stored until ejaculation?
What is the first stage of spermatogenesis?
mitosis of stem cells (spermatogonia) to produce primary spermatocyte
What is the second stage of spermatogenesis?
meiosis of primary spermatocyte to produce haploid spermatids (undifferentiated male gametes)
What is the third stage of spermatogenesis?
spermatogenesis (the differentiation of spermatids into mature spermatozoa (sperm))
What is the first step of sperm production in seminiferous tubules?
spermatogenesis proceeds from the wall of the seminiferous tubule inward toward the lumen
What is the second step of sperm production in seminiferous tubules?
stem cell spermatogonia near the wall of the tubule divide by mitosis to make spermatocytes
What is the third step of sperm production in seminiferous tubules?
spermatocytes divide by mitosis to make spermatids
What is the fourth step of sperm production in seminiferous tubules?
spermatids mature into spermatozoa (sperm)
What does the head of the sperm contain?
the nucleus with densely packed chromosomes
What does the neck (mid piece) of the sperm contain?
mitochondria to produce ATP required to move the tail
What is the normal sperm/ejaculation ratio?
500 million sperm per ejaculation
What is the final stage of sperm development?
What happens during spermiogenesis?
maturation of immature spermatids into mature sperm
-cytoplasm and organelles degrade except:
-mitochondria cluster at one end of the nucleus
-acrosomal cap develops
What marks spermiogenesis?
development of the head, neck and tail of the sperm
Where does the acrosomal cap develop from?
What does the acrosomal cap contain?
enzymes for fertilization (they break down the wall of the oocyte for entry)
How long is the epididymis?
What does the epididymis do?
monitors and adjusts fluid in seminiferous tubules
stores and protects spermatozoa until ejaculation
What propels the immotile sperm through the epididymis?
the functional maturation of sperm
functional maturation of sperm:
the ability to swim and fertilize an egg cell
What is the first step of capacitation?
sperm mixed with secretions from the seminal vesicles (especially fructose)
What is the second step of capacitation?
sperm exposed to the female reproductive tract
Where does the ductus deferens begin?
at the tail of the epididymis
where does the ductus deferens pass through the inguinal canal?
inside the spermatic cord
Where does the ductus deferens enlarge?
at its terminus
Why does the ductus deferens enlarge at its terminus?
to form the ampulla
Where does the ductus deferens empty into?
short ejaculatory duct at the base of the seminal vesicle
Where does the ejaculatory duct empty?
into the prostatic urethra
How long can the ductus deferens store viable sperm?
several months in suspended animation
What propels immotile sperm through the ductus deferens?
pseudo stratified ciliated columnar epithelia and smooth muscle
Where does the membranous urethra pass through?
the urogenital diaphragm
what are the male accessory glands?
What percentage of seminal fluid do the seminal vesicles add to sperm?
What percentage of seminal fluid does the prostate gland add to sperm?
What percentage of seminal fluid does the bulbourethral gland add to sperm?
What do secretions from the seminal vesicles add to sperm?
fructose, prostaglandin, fibrinogen
What does the fructose do for sperm?
aids in development of ATP for flagellar movement
what do prostaglandins do for sperm?
stimulates smooth muscle contractions in the male and female reproductive tracts
What do prostaglandins do in the female reproductive tract?
triggers contractions that help the sperm move toward the oocyte and can induce labor during late-term pregnancy
What does fibrinogen do for sperm?
causes semen to clot temporarily when it enters the vagina so it doesn't all get dissolved by the acidity of the vagina
What does the bulbourethral gland add to sperm?
an alkaline mucus that lubricates the penile urethra and tip of penis prior to ejaculation. the alkalinity of the mucus neutralizes urinary and vaginal acid
What is the volume of a typical ejaculate?
2.5 mL semen
how much sperm is there in each mL of semen?
What makes up the formed elements of semen?
What is the fluid portion of semen called?
What are the three masses of erectile tissues in the penis?
two corpus cavernosa
one corpus spongiosum
What does dilation of erectile tissue blood capillaries produce?
engorged erectile tissues
follicle stimulating hormone, targets sustenacular cells to promote spermatogenesis
Leutinizing Hormone that causes secretion of testosterone and other androgens by interstitial cells
gonadotropin releasing hormone, from the hypothalamus causes release of LH and FSH by the pituitary gland
most important for male secondary sex characteristics
What is the penile sulcus?
separates the glans from the shaft of the penis
What is the urinary meatus?
opening for urethra
How long is the penis when flaccid?
How long is the penis when erect?
What do the ovaries store and develop?
Where is the site of fertilization?
What carries the egg to the uterus?
What is the broad ligament?
sheetlike ligament that encloses the ovaries, uterus, and uterine tubes and attaches them to the body wall
What is the ovarian ligament?
the ligament that stabilizes the ovaries relative to the uterus
What is the round ligament?
the ligament that attaches the uterus to the body wall
What is the suspensory ligament?
the ligament that attaches ovaries to the body wall
What is the site of gamete (oocyte) maturation in females?
What do the ovaries do?
release a single oocyte monthly from puberty to menopause
What are the ovaries held in place by?
ovarian and suspensory ligament
Where do blood vessels (ovarian artery and ovarian vein) enter/exit the ovaries?
at the ovarian hilus
What are the ovaries covered by?
When does an egg cell become an ovum?
when it comes into contact with the sperm
What is oogenesis?
the production of a mature ovum; completed only after fertilization
What are the 2 phases of oogenesis?
follicular phase (preovulatory)
luteal phase (postovulatory)
what is the first step in the ovarian cycle?
formation of primary, secondary, and tertiary follicles inside the ovaries
What is the second step in the ovarian cycle?
What is the third step in the ovarian cycle?
formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum
How long is a complete ovarian cycle?
What does FSH stimulate in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
the development of 10-12 primordial follies
How many primordial follicles will continue to develop to secondary follicle stage?
How many primordial follicles will reach tertiary follicle stage?
When will the 1 primordial follicle reach tertiary follicle stage?
within 8-10 days
What is another name for the tertiary follicle?
In the graafian follicle, what causes the primary oocyte to complete meiosis 1 to form a secondary oocyte?
Where doe the secondary oocyte stop meiosis II?
What do granulose cells surrounding the oocyte form?
What has to occur for meiosis II to be completed?
fertilization (triggered by sperm)
Rising levels of what in the blood cause ovulation and development of corpus luteum?
what happens to the tertiary (graffian) follicle during ovulation?
What does the tertiary (graffian) follicle release when it is ruptured?
the secondary oocyte with corona radiata
What does the corpus luteum develop from?
the ruptured remains of the follicle
What does the corpus luteum release?
What happens to the corpus luteum after it releases hormones?
When does the corpus luteum degenerate?
12 days after ovulation
What happens to the corpus luteum after it degenerates?
shrivels and stays in the ovaries as a scar
What are the three sections of the fallopian/uterine tubes?
infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus
What is the infundibulum?
the end of the fallopian tube closest to the ovary, has numerous finger-like projections called fimbriae, does not actually connect to the ovaries
What is the ampulla?
middle portion of the fallopian tube with a "U" turn in it
What is the isthmus?
the narrow potion of the fallopian tube that is connected to the uterus
When does fertilization occur?
usually 12-24 hours after ovulation during passage of egg from infundibulum to uterus
How is the oocyte transported through the uterine tube?
beating of cilia and peristaltic contractions
How many days does it take for the oocyte to move from the infundibulum to the uterus?
5-7 (closer to 9)
What day are you most likely to get pregnant?
What does the uterus provide?
-impact protection for the developing baby
-nutritional support for the developing baby
-waste removal for the developing baby
What ligaments support the uterus?
broad and suspensory ligaments
What layer of the uterus does the baby develop in?
What are the pouches surrounding the cervix called?
What is the cervical plug?
like a cork in the cervix. on day 14 the plug is dissolved so sperm can get to the oocyte
What is the most common reproductive system cancer in women ages 15-34?
How often should pap smears be performed?
every 1-3 years for women aged 15-34
What is the endometrium?
a thin. inner glandular mucosa formed of epithelial tissue
What is the myometrium?
a thick muscular layer
What is the perimetrium?
an incomplete serosa continuous with the peritoneum. formed of connective tissue
What is the endometrium divided into?
What is the basilar zone?
the zone near the myometrium
What is the functional zone?
the zone near the uterine cavity
When foes the endometrium undergo significant changes?
during the menstrual (uterine) cycle
What are the three stages of the uterine cycle?
What happens during the secretory phase?
endometrial glands enlarge and accelerate rates of secretion
What happens during menses?
degeneration of the endometrium (menstrual bleeding)
What happens during the proliferative phase?
restoration of the endometrium, preparation for glandular activity
What does the lining of the vagina contain?
-unkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia
-rich vascular supply
-bundles of smooth muscle
What creates the acidic environment of the vagina?
resident (and harmless) bacteria
What does the acidic environment of the vagina prevent?
the growth of more harmful organisms
What balances out the acidic state of the vagina?
fibrin and fibrinogen in the semen
What is the female equivalent of scrotum?
how many nerve endings does the glans of clitoris contain?
how many nerve endings does the glans penis contain?
what glands discharge secretions into the vagina during and vestibule when sexually aroused?
vestibular glands and paraurethral glands
What is the clitoris held in place by?
suspensory ligament, crura, and vestibular bulb
What hormones control lactation?
Oxytocin and Prolactin
Where does production of milk begin?
in the lobules of mammary glands
Where does milk produced in the lobes drain?
Where is the milk collected after it goes through the lactiferous ducts?
Is breast milk a living tissue?
GnRH in female
controls release of gonadotropins
FSH in female
stimulates the follicular development
LH in female
maintains structure and secretory function of the corpus luteum
major hormone for female secondary sexual characteristics
stimulates endometrial secretory phase
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