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Anatomy Final - Previous Exam Questions
Terms in this set (145)
Which of the following is not a normal feature of epithelial tissue
An abundance of blood vessels within the epithelium
The myosin head in skeletal muscle has each of the following except
A binding site for troponins
These structures are similar to "spot welds" that serve to hold epithelial cells together
Which of the following is not considered a connective tissue
The outer or most superficial layer of the integument is called
The axial skeleton contains each of the following except
Humerus of the upper limb
The proliferative cells of the epidermis that divide and replace other epidermal cells are located in which epidermal layer
Small blood vessels or capillaries are lined by simple squamous epithelium. The most likely function of this type of epithelium would be
To allow rapid diffusion of molecules into and out of the bloodstream
Which of the following muscle types is/are striated
Skeletal muscle and Cardiac muscle
Which of the following is a type of fiber found in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue
A diaphysis is
Shaft of long bone
These cells are resident cells in many connective tissues and produce the bulk of the extracellular fibers in these tissues
These structures in epidermal cells are released and help form a water barrier in the skin
Lamellar bodies (membrane coating granules)
This is the outermost layer of the epidermis of the integument and consists of very flattened dead cells
These cells of the integument contain pigment and cause different pigmentation patterns in humans
How many fitting parameters are needed to use the Hill equation to describe the velocity of contraction as a function of stress
Which of the following electrical states of muscles are properly modeled with the Hill equation?
The following very simple molecular model is very effectively used in modeling purely entropic elastic materials
What is the third most abundant protein in human muscle?
When using continuum models to study skeletal muscle, how many phases are typically considered
Actin and myosin overlap is the major metric used in modeling the stress in which component of the 3 component hill model
The contractile element
Which of the following cell types plays a primary role in digesting bone matrix to release calcium into the blood
This is a large protein in striated muscle that anchors thick filaments to the Z-line and helps prevent over-stretching of the sarcomere
You are hiking through a South American jungle with a colleague when he gets struck by a poisonous dark. You notice that he quickly becomes unable to walk and is having difficultly breathing. You deduce that his skeletal muscle is becoming paralyzed (unable to contract) Which of the following could best explain this situation
The poison blocked the acetyl choline receptor at neuromuscular junctions
Which of the following is not true regarding bone
Bone is avascular and has little potential for remodeling
You are trying to lift a heavy weight and notice that as your muscle stretches you can generate less and less force. This is likely because
Muscle stretch results in elongation of the sarcomere and less overlap between thick and thin filaments
A motor unit is defined as
All of the muscle cells innervated or controlled by a single neuron
Which of the following is not true of osteocytes
They are inactive or quiescent cells and thus have no function in bone
The biceps femoris is a prime mover in flexion at the knee joint. Other muscles that assist in this action include the semitendinous and semimembranous. These muscles are called
An important step in the wound healing process is the influx of white blood cells (leukocytes) to clear out foreign materials. White blood cells arrive at the wound site via
Which of the following structures is located at the apical region of epithelial cells and plays an important role in preventing diffusion of materials between adjacent cells
Which of the following is not considered a connective tissue
The dural sinuses—
Circulate the CSF
Which of the following is NOT a bone of the Cranium
If blood to the brain is interrupted for __ minutes irreversible neurological damage occurs
If you were in a tragically literal mood and "cut off your nose to spite your face" then this cut would be pretty much in which of the following planes?
Which of the following is not part a reflex arc
ascending spinal column
The main function of the cerebellum is
The cerebral cortex
Contains most of the neurons in the brain
Crossing the radius and ulna (moving the forearm out of anatomical position) is called
The first cervical C1 vertebrae is characterized by
The absence of a body
Which of the following not a neuroglia cell
Most cranial nerves originate in the
There are ____ neurons in a spinal reflex arch
The homunculus which represents both motor and sensory function areas in the brain is located
In the cerebellum
A drop of blood is flowing towards the heart in the superior vena cava. Which of the following lists structures that the drop of blood would encounter in the appropriate order. (i.e. there may be structures missing but those listed are in the correct order)
Right atrium - right ventricle - pulmonic valve - lungs - pulmonary veins
This layer of the pericardium is in immediate contact with the myocardium and is also called the epicardium
Which of the following statements regarding the heart is true
The trabeculae carnae are found in the left and right atria
Which of the following structures serves as the "pacemaker" of the heart and serves to initiate the heartbeat approximately every 0.8 seconds under normal circumstances
Which of the following is true regarding the coronary arteries
The coronary arteries arise directly from the aorta
Which of the following is not a function of the vascular endothelial cells
The endothelial cells can give rise to a number of other cell types including cardiac and skeletal muscle
In which of the following types of blood vessels does exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occur between the blood and surrounding tissue
You meet an individual who recently suffered a stroke. He informs you that he has difficulty performing motor behaviors. His stroke may have affected his
Lesions to cerebellum or brain stem or cerebrum could cause difficulties with motor behavior
Postsynaptic dendrites integrate incoming signals using
Spatial and temporal summation of EPSPs only
Identify the TRUE statement
During limb movements, such as cycling, most muscles exhibit similar activation patterns (activation onsets and durations)
You are asked to see a patient with a disease that has selectively destroyed her gamma motor neurons, resulting in loss of alpha-gamma coactivation. You will most likely begin your physical exam by assessing her
Identify the FALSE statement
The CNS uses reciprocal inhibition to control input from muscle spindles
Peter sees his doctor because he is having difficulty performing motor skills. His doctor suspects Peter is actually experiencing problems with sensory integration. The issue could involve integration of information from which of the following
Visual system, Vestibular system, Proprioceptive system
You are designing a Brain-Machine Interface that uses recording and stimulation of the brain to move an artificial limb. Signals recorded in motor cortex are decoded to move the artificial limb and the motors of the artificial limb are used to control simulation of sensory cortex. This is an example of
Which of the following is paired correctly?
IgE: is produced by mast cells and responsible for anaphylactic hypersensitivity
Which of the following statements regarding red blood cells and hemoglobin is true
Each hemoglobin molecule has 4 pigments (heme)
Which of the following match is correct?
CD19: B cells
From following cell types, which one can phagocytize and process antigen in the immune response?
The lifespan of neutrophils once they enter connective tissue is approximately
Which statement regarding MHC-I is true?
It helps fight intracellular infection
Which of the following statements regarding lymphatic vessels is true?
They carry fluid from tissues to bloodstream
T lymphocyte activation does not involve which of the following
Antibody and Fc receptor
Which of the following statements regarding eosinophils is not correct
They are much fewer in number than neutrophils in a normal person's blood
Which of the following statements regarding the spleen is correct?
It only filters blood but not lymph
Which of the following activities are most closely associated with natural killer cells
Lysis of virus-infected cells
Which of the following statements about thymus is not true
Trabeculae extend from capsule and divide the thymus into many separate thymic lobules
Which of the following statements regarding lymph nodes is correct?
Superficial cortex contains lymph nodules
During a typical infection, dendritic cells first encounter pathogen in __ and then transport the pathogen to ___ where pathogen-derived peptide fragments are presented to ___
Infected peripheral tissue; lymph node; lymphocytes
Which of the following cranial nerves is associated with sound?
Which of the following statements regarding CN VIII is true?
Sound waves are converted to mechanical energy and then to electrical energy
Cranial nerve V is associated with what opening in the skull
Which statement about cranial nerve I is true?
It is associated with his sense of smell
Blood from the dural sinuses returns to the
Olfactory receptors go from the olfactory bulb through the
Which of the following is NOT a lobe of the cerebrum?
Where do smooth muscle cells primarily reside in muscular arteries?
What constitutes the local mechanical environment in the arterial wall, i.e the environment that smooth muscle cells sense and respond to?
Blood flow rate
What primarily governs the passive mechanical response of vascular tissue?
Elastin, Collagen, Smooth Muscle cells
What mechanical characteristic of blood vessels is responsible for their transformation of cardiac output into a relatively steady flow (as opposed to highly pulsatile)?
Elasticity of arterial walls
A patient seen in clinic has blood pressure measurement 150/90. What is this person's mean arterial pressure (MAP)?
110 mm Hg
Mrs. Lee's cardiologist tells her that she is suffering from tachycardia. Which of the following is most likely to be true of her findings?
Her resting heart rate is 140 bpm
Which of the following parts of the ECG corresponds to ventricular contraction?
The S-T segment
What is the effect of a negative inotrope on heart function?
It decreases the force of contraction independent of EDV
Select the answer which correctly lists the order of depolarization in the cardiac conduction system
Sinoatrial node, internodal pathways, Atrioventricular node, bundle branches
What is the ejection fraction for a patient with an EDV of 150mL and an ESV of 100mL?
In which of the following arrhythmias would the QRS complex be absent in an electrocardiogram?
CN VI is the
CN VIII is
Which region does NOT get parasympathetic innervation?
The part of the lumbar spine which supports the most weight is the?
The uvula is the dividing line between the
Nasopharynx and oropharynx
Which of the following is made extensively of cartilage?
After a tracheostomy
The patient has an open airway at the front of the neck
Gas exchange in the lungs occurs between capillaries and
Which of the following is NOT part of the LEFT lung?
Most of the pressure that causes exhalation is generated by
What pleura attached to the lung is called the—
Name the steps in the sequence of host reactions to implant discussed in class
Injury -- blood-biomaterial interaction - provisional matrix formation
Which of the following is/are signs of inflammation discussed in class
Redness, Heat, Swelling
Name the type(s) of innate immune cell(s) discussed in class
Neutrophil, Macrophage, Basophil, Eosinophil
What does PAMP stand for?
Pathogen associated molecular pattern
True or false. Inflammation changes the adhesive properties of the vascular wall
True or false. Chronic inflammation begins hours after material inflammation
True or false. As more macrophages fuse together their ability for extracellular degradation decreases
True or false. The implant of a medical device results in an unavoidable immune response
During normal quiet breathing expiration of air occurs when
The diaphragm relaxes, reducing the volume of the thoracic cavity
Which of the following factors is the primary cause of breathing difficulties in restrictive lung diseases?
Loss of lung compliance
At which level of the respiratory tree do immune mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes play a major role in controlling airway resistance?
An adult woman has a ventilation rate of 15breaths/min a tidal volume of 500ml and a dead space volume of 150ml. Her alveolar ventilation rate is
In the alveoli what is the driving force for exchange of gases between the air space and the pulmonary capillaries?
Hydrostatic pressure difference between air and blood
What is the role of surfactant in the lungs?
It decreases surface tension, making the lung easier to inflate
Which of the following is true in a patient who is hyperventilating?
Alveolar carbon dioxide concentration decreases and alveolar oxygen concentration increases
Which of the following factors does NOT affect hemoglobin-oxygen binding?
In emphysema impaired gas exchange in the lung is a result of
Reduced alveolar surface area
Your molars are most useful for
Crushing and grinding nuts
The type of epithelium found lining the surface of the small intestine is
Simple columnar epithelium
Which of the following are found in the stomach wall?
Which of the following is true for pepsinogen?
It is secreted by chief cells in the stomach
If you were a physician and wanted to treat a patient's stomach ulcer to allow it to heal which cell type would you want to inhibit the activity of?
Which one of the following does not contribute to the large surface area of the small intestine used for absorption?
Which one of the following is true for the duodenum?
It has the most lymphatic tissue of the small intestine regions
Which one is FALSE for the large intestine?
It has lots of cells that secrete antibacterial agents to keep the bacterial population very low
Refer to the liver figure above to answer this question. Which letter indicates a central vein?
In the figure above the area outlined in black with the "X" in it is what part of the gut wall?
The cells of the endocrine pancreas that make glucagon are called
The small intestine hormone whose function is primarily to stimulate release of bicarbonate-rich secretions from digestive system accessory organs in order to neutralize acidic chyme is
After absorption by the small intestine epithelial cells, lipids that are reassembled into triglycerides are packaged as ____ before entering the lacteal
Free fatty acids
Which of the following is not involved in carbohydrate digestion
In the regulation of gastric activity which of the following phases works to slow down the arrival of chyme in the small intestine
Which of the following correctly describes the "artificial pancreas" discussed in class?
It senses glucose, It relays information to an insulin pump, The pump calculates how much insulin to release, It is designed for use by type I diabetics
Which one of the following is not a function of saliva?
Dietary protein breakdown
Which of the following correctly describes peristalsis in the gut?
It is a motion that pushes food along the length of the gut
Which type of epithelium lines the mucosa of the esophagus?
Stratified squamous epithelium
When examining nervous system regulation of the gastrointestinal tract which of the following is correct?
The myenteric plexus controls contraction of the muscularis externa
The surface cells of the stomach and the small intestine are completely replaced approximately how often?
A mass of food that has been chewed and swallowed will NOT normally enter which of the following structures?
Which of the following is a feature of the duodenum wall that structurally distinguishes it from the jejunum and ileum?
Glands in the submucosa
The function of bile is to
Break lipids into free fatty acids and monoglycerides
The atlas bone
Does not have a body
The ribs attach to the thoracic vertebrae at the
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