40 terms

APES- Environmental Hazards and Human Health

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Acute Effect
Immediate response to exposure
Biological Hazard
Pathogens that are living organisms and viruses that can cause human disease.
Biomagnification
Compounds accumulated in body tissues passed from one organism to another through the food chain
Carcinogens
Cause or promote cancer in the human body (Examples: benzene, formaldehyde, dioxins, PCBs)
Chemical Hazard
In the air, soil, and water we drink and food we ingest (Examples: pesticides, heavy metals, PCBs, asbestos)
Cholera
Diarrheal Disease caused by bacteria, from unsanitary drinking water that is contaminated with feces
Chronic Effect
Can occur from a single dose or long-term exposure to smaller doses of a toxin, causes longer-lasting or permanent damage to the body
Cultural Hazard
Living in areas with high crime rates, working in unsafe conditions, frequent driving on highways, and poverty.
Dose
Used to define a harmful level, average to which an organism is generally exposed and the effects of increasing that exposure
Dose- Response Curve
Plotting an organism's response to a given chemical versus the dose received
Dysentery
Diarrheal Disease caused by bacteria, protists, or parasitic works, from unsanitary drinking water that is contaminated with feces
Endocrine System
Responsible for producing hormones that help regulate reproductive systems, growth and development, and metabolism
Epidemic
An outbreak of an infectious disease that is limited to one area or region
HIV
Second most deadly disease for humans, leads to development of AIDs, contracted by unprotected sex and sharing needles with infected people, as infants from mothers during birth/breast- feeding
Hormonally Active Agent (HAA)
Chemical toxins, endocrine disruptors because they either they mimic estrogen or block androgens from binding to their appropriate receptor sites in the cell
Immune System
Role is to produce antibodies to protect against infection and disease, often weakened by exposure to chemical toxins
Infectious Disease
One that can be spread from person to person and is therefore contagious (Examples: influenza, HIV, malaria, tuberculosis)
Influenza
The most deadly infectious disease, known as the flu, very contagious
Lifestyle Choices
Decisions you make on how you life (Examples: smoking, unprotected sex, drug use)
Malaria
Mosquito-borne disease spread by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, in warmer areas, DDT reduced
Median Lethal Dosage (LD50)
What dose would be required to kill 50% of the test population
Mutagen
Chemical hazards that promote mutations or changes in DNA, may cause cancers or be passed on to future generations
Neurotoxin
Toxins that cause damage to the brain, nerves, or spinal cord (Examples: methyl mercury, PCBs, lead)
Non- Transmissible Disease
One that cannot be spread from person to person (Examples: hard and blood vessel diseases, diabetes, cancers, asthma).
Non- Threshold Dose- Response
If the response or effect begins at zero and increases continuously with a dosage
Pandemic
An outbreak of an infectious disease that spreads globally
Pathogen
Bacteria and viruses that can cause human disease
Persistence
Chemicals lasting for long periods of time in the environment becasue they are not easily degraded or broken down
Physical Hazard
Events such as earthquakes, fires, eruptions, floods, storms
Response
Amount of health damage caused by exposure to a certain dose of a harmful substance or form of radiation
Risk
Probability of harmful effects to human health resulting from exposure to an environmental hazard.
Risk Assessment
Used to determine the probability of adverse human health effects resulting from exposure to a specific hazard.
1. Hazard Identification
2. Dose-Responsive Assessment
3. Exposure Assessment
4. Risk Characterization
Risk Management
Cost analysis of remediating the specific hazard and possibly establishing legal limits for discharge, exposure, and allowable levels of the hazard.
Solubility
Chemicals that are fat soluble easily accumulate in the tissue of living organisms, water soluble will be dissolved easily in water
Teratogen
Chemical hazards that cause birth defects to a fetus or embryo (Examples: heavy metals, formaldehyde ethyl alcohol, PCBs)
Threshold Dose- Response
Shows that harmful effects do not occur until after the dose exceeds a threshold level
Toxic Chemical
any substance which may be harmful to the environment or hazardous to your health if inhaled, ingested or absorbed
Toxicity
the degree to which a substance can damage an organism
Toxicology
The study of the detrimental effects chemicals have on both humans and wildlife
Tuberculosis
Bacterial disease in crowded conditions in LDCs, spreads through the air by coughs and sneezes from infected individuals