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Psych Exam 2
Terms in this set (79)
The ABC's of social psychology are affect, behavior, and cognition. In Chapter 5 of the textbook, three major concepts, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination correspond to affect, behavior, or cognition. Stereotypes correspond with ____________.
The ABC's of social psychology are affect, behavior, and cognition. In Chapter 5 of the textbook, three major concepts, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination correspond to affect, behavior, or cognition. Prejudice corresponds with ____________.
The ABC's of social psychology are affect, behavior, and cognition. In Chapter 5 of the textbook, three major concepts, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination correspond to affect, behavior, or cognition. Discrimination corresponds with ____________.
The ABC's of social psychology are affect, behavior, and cognition. Put the three major concepts of Chapter 5 in this ABC order by considering whether they correspond to affect, behavior, or cognition.
Prejudice, discrimination, stereotyping
Bridgette thinks short people are lazy and Barbara refuses to let short people join her book club. Bridgette is exhibiting _____, whereas Barbara is exhibiting _____.
Stereotypes differ from prejudice and discrimination in that stereotypes concern
positive or negative beliefs about a social group
Modern racism can be distinguished from what has been termed "old-fashioned" racism in that modern racism is
less obvious than "old-fashioned" racisim
Which of the following has not been used by psychologists to measure implicit forms of racism?
Common Ingroup Identity Model (CIIM)
Affectionate feelings towards women based on the belief that women need protection are referred to as _______________ sexism.
Affectionate feelings towards women based on the belief that women need protection are referred to as
A junior high coach decides to separate his basketball players into an A team and a B team. These two teams regularly play each other and compete for rewards, such as time at the drinking fountain and use of the new basketballs. The Robbers Cave experiment would suggest that the coach's new arrangement is likely to
lead to animosity between the A team and the B team
Some border-town residents dislike illegal immigrants because they fear that the immigrants will take jobs away from them. These feelings can best be explained by ____________ __________________ theory.
Some border-town residents dislike illegal immigrants because they fear that the immigrants will take jobs away from them. These feelings can best be explained by
realistic conflict theory
Minimal groups are groups
based on trivial, often arbitrary, distinctions
Which of the following has been demonstrated through the use of minimal groups?
Mere categorization is sufficient to produce ingroup favoritism
According to social identity theory, people display ingroup favoritism
as a means of increasing self-esteem
Social categorization is advantageous because it
frees up cognitive resources
Social categorization leads people to
overestimate differences between groups
Groups to which the self belongs are called _____
Groups to which the self does not belong are called _____.
Groups to which the self belongs are called _____, and groups to which the self does not belong are called _____.
The belief "they're all the same" best epitomizes the ____________ ___________ effect
The belief "they're all the same" best epitomizes which of the following concepts?
Outgroup homogeneity effect
Charles is a Red Sox fan who does not think highly of Yankees fans. Which of the following statements Charles made in the past week is most consistent with the concept of outgroup homogeneity?
"Obnoxious, rude, and prone to throwing punches . . . if you've seen one Yankees fan, you've seem them all."
In explaining the behavior of outgroup members, people tend to make
situational attributions for positive behaviors, but personal attributions for negative behaviors
Forming subtypes for individuals who do not conform to a group stereotype
serves to protect the stereotype from change
Self-fulfilling prophecies perpetuate stereotypes by
eliciting stereotype-confirming behavior from targets
Gender stereotypes are prescriptive. This means that gender stereotypes
identify what men and women should be like
Research on age and stereotype suppression indicates that
older individuals have less success with stereotype suppression than younger individuals
In the aftermath of the Amadou Diallo shooting, several psychologists have investigated the influence that a suspect's race might play in police decisions to shoot or not shoot. The results of these studies suggest that
mere awareness of racial stereotypes is enough to influence police behavior, even if the officers do not endorse these stereotypes
Which of the following is an essential requirement in order for stereotype threat to occur?
The individual in question must be aware of negative stereotypes about his or her group
The idea that, under certain conditions, direct contact between hostile groups can reduce prejudice is most consistent with
the contact hypothesis
Aronson's jigsaw classroom work is similar to Sherif's Robbers Cave experiment because both illustrated how
superordinate goals can reduce prejudice
The most direct and straightforward way to assess an attitude is through the use of
Shaniqua plans to use a self-report measure in which people indicate their agreement or disagreement with a list of statements. She is using
a Likert scale
One potential problem with self-report measures is that
respondents might not respond truthfully
One way to increase the accuracy of self-report measures of attitudes is to
convince respondents that any deception can be detected
Measuring attitudes by assessing physiological arousal tends to identify the _____ but not the _____ of the attitude
An attitude is implicit if you
are not aware of it
The process by which a person is persuaded by cues in the persuasion context rather than thinking critically about the content of a persuasive message is called
the peripheral route to persuasion
Which of the following source characteristics best explains why a company might recruit a supermodel to endorse its products
People high in need for cognition are
more likely to process a message along the central route
The idea that people are more likely to be influenced by messages that match their frame of mind is known as
A negative reaction to the feeling that one's freedom is being threatened is called
An unpleasant psychological state often aroused when people hold two conflicting cognitions is called
The findings of the classic Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) experiment indicate that
participants in the $1 condition experience greater discomfort and agitation when lying about how fun the task was than do participants in the $20 condition
Imagine that Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) ran a follow-up to their classic peg-turning study. In this new version, participants are either paid $10 to lie to the next participant (actually a confederate) or are given no choice and forced to lie by being told that failure to do so will result in a loss of any course credit that was to be earned for having participated in the study. The most likely results of this new experiment would be that participants who are given no choice and forced to lie (through the threat of no course credit) would _______ than participants in the $10 condition
be less likely to agree to lie to the confederate
A condition in which people refrain from engaging in a desirable activity, even though only mild punishment is threatened, is called
Shawna wants to join a sorority. This sorority has recently decided to put incoming members through various forms of initiation. Based on the findings of Aronson and Mills (1959), which of the following types of initiations is most likely to lead Shawna to come to identify strongly with the sorority and to value her membership in the group in the effort to avoid cognitive dissonance?
A severely unpleasant initiation
The idea that we infer our own attitudes by coolly observing ourselves and the circumstances of our behavior is most consistent with
A major difference between cognitive dissonance theory and self-perception theory involves the extent to which _____ is necessary in order to lead to self-persuasion and attitude change
Impression management theory suggests that people change their attitudes to match their behaviors in an effort to
Cross-cultural research indicates that cognitive dissonance
can be seen across cultures, but emerges in different situations in different cultures
The ways in which people are affected by the real or imagined presence of others is called
The tendency to unconsciously mimic the nonverbal behavior of others is called the _____________ _____________.
chameleon effect;behavioral mimicry
The tendency to unconsciously mimic the nonverbal behavior of others is called
the chameleon effect
In comparison to obedience and compliance, conformity
involves less direct pressure from others
The tendency to alter thoughts, feelings, and behavior in ways that are consistent with group norms is called
Sherif's (1936) research using the autokinetic effect demonstrated that
people often look to others as a source of information
Informational influence occurs primarily because people
believe that others are correct in their judgments
Because no one else seems concerned about the welfare of the man lying down on the sidewalk, Mo steps over him as well, figuring that he is simply drunk or asleep and not in need of emergency assistance. Mo's behavior is an example of
informational social influence
Joanie and Chachi have just started to attend church. Chachi stands up and sits down when the rest of the congregation does because if he doesn't the elderly couple across the aisle scowl at him. Chachi has conformed because of _____
Joanie and Chachi have just started to attend church. Joanie pays attention to when the rest of the congregation sits and stands because she wants to be sure to stand and sit at the appropriate times. Chachi stands up and sits down when the rest of the congregation does because if he doesn't the elderly couple across the aisle scowl at him. Joanie has conformed because of _____, whereas Chachi has conformed because of _____
informational influence; normative influence
Arnold wears suits every day to his job at the bank, but when he is at home in the evening and on weekends, he spends most of his time naked because that is what he finds most comfortable. Arnold's daytime behavior illustrates _______________ conformity
Normative influence tends to produce ____, whereas informational influence leads to ____
public conformity; private conformity
The experience of being ostracized has been found to be
similar in brain activation to the experience of physical pain
According to the law of diminishing returns, the 9th person to offer public agreement with a group's position exerts _______ social influence on individual group members compared to the 3rd person to agree with the group position
Prentice and Miller (1996) found that most college students overestimate how comfortable their peers are with alcohol on campus. This misperception is an example of
Mary has just heard five friends say that Massachusetts is the largest state in New England, when she knows it is Maine. Rob, the next friend in line, says that New Hampshire is the largest state in New England. In this situation, Mary is now less likely to conform with the first five friends than if Rob had said that
Massachusetts is the largest state
Women conform more and men conform less when they believe they are being observed. Eagly (1987) argues that this occurs because
people feel greater pressure in public to behave in ways consistent with their gender-role
Often overlooked in Asch's conformity study is the fact that participants refused to conform _____ of the time
Hiroko is usually very agreeable and goes along with his friends' plans. Tonight, however, he tells his friends that even though they all want to go out for Mexican food, he has a strong preference for Italian food. Even though he is the only person who initially votes for Italian, Hiroko's friends eventually come to agree with him because he usually does go along with the group. This best epitomizes which of the following phenomena associated with minority influence?
Individuals from Eastern cultures are more likely than those from Western cultures to
conform to a public norm
Psychologists tend to refer to a culture that values the virtues of interdependence and social harmony as
As compared to conformity, compliance occurs
in response to a direct request
In order to convince people to buy lunch from their restaurant in the food court, employees at the Chinese restaurant gave out free samples of chicken teriyaki to everyone who walked by. The restaurant employees are hoping to take advantage of the
norm of reciprocity
As he was about to enter the mall, Evan was approached by someone and asked to wear a small green ribbon on his shirt to show his support for the "Save the Squirrels" campaign. Evan wasn't quite sure that squirrels were actually endangered, but he agreed to wear the ribbon. A week later, Evan was approached again and asked to contribute $10 to help save the squirrels. Though he would have rather spent his money elsewhere, he agreed. Evan has been the victim of
the foot-in-the-door technique
One important similarity between the foot-in-the-door technique and the door-in-the-face technique is that they both
take advantage of people's desire to avoid cognitive dissonance
When trying to close a car sale, Jerry often tries to sweeten the deal by telling the customer that he will throw in 6 free oil changes as well. This sales technique is best described as
the that's-not-all technique
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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