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Semester 1 Review
Terms in this set (91)
Age of Exploration
In search for gold and glory and in attempts to spread religion, various European countries journeid to the New World and established colonies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
The first permanent English colony was established in hopes to find wealth in Virginia 1607.
A social contract in which Pilgrims of Massachusetts agreed to follow laws for the good of the colony in 1620.
Virginia House of Burgesses
The first colonial legislature and representative government established in the 13 colonies.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
A constitution written by Thomas Hooker in which the powers of the Connecticut goverrnment were clearly defined.
Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania for religious freedom and established religious toleration and representative government.
Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson
Religious dissenterrs who went to Rhode Island for religious freedom. Williams established separation of church and state.
The first document to limit the King of England's power in 1215, it inspired limited government in our Constitution.
English Bill of Rights
A list of rights for English citizens that protected them from government abuse. Inspired the U.S. Bill of Rights
An economic system that guaranteed profits and a favorable balance of trade for the mother country if she exported more than she imported.
Driven by the plantation system and the profitability of cash-crop agriculture, this trade involved enslaved Africans from their west coast, cash crops from the American colonies, and manufactured goods from England.
A time period during colonization in which England gave their colonies relative economic and political freedom to establish their own institutions.
Proclamation of 1763
Colonists were prohibited from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains by King George III who wanted to avoid conflicts with natives and keep them on the coast.
Passed as punishment for the Boston Tea Party, Boston Harbor was closed, self-government was limited, and a stronger Quartering Act was passed.
Passed to help pay off debt from the war, colonists were forced to purchase a stamp whenever they bought printed materials.
"No taxation without representation"
The slogan of the American Revolution, colonists resented English economic policies that were passed without consent of colonists in Parliament.
French and Indian War
Fought over valuable resources in the Ohio River Valley, Britain's decision to tax colonists after the war in efforts to pay off its war debt led to resentment that started the Revolutionary Era.
Advocated for women's rights in the Declaration of Independence. Her letters with John Adams provided information about the Revolutionary War.
Delegate at the Continental Congress, lawyer who defended a British officer after the Boston Massacre, member of the Committee of Five, and foreign diplomat.
African American who fought in the Battle of Saratoga and midnight rider who provided warnings to soldiers in New Hampshire. He became the first African American elected to public office.
Leader of the Sons of Liberty, this patriot was a delegate to the Continental Congress and used propaganda to incite anger toward the British.
Mercy Otis Warren
Political writer and propagandist during the American Revolution. Her plays and writings criticized British policies.
African American spy who obtained valuable information for the Patriots that helped them win at Yorktown.
Delegate at the Continental Congress, member of the Committee of Five, creator of "Join or Die" political cartoon, and French diplomat.
Bernardo de Galvez
Spanish military officer who helped the Americans during the Revolution by attacking the British in the South and giving supplies to American troops.
African American who became the first casualty of the American Revolution when he died at the Boston Massacre.
King George III
King of England who ignored colonial petitions that said a lack of representation in Parliament violated their rights. A list of grievances about him in the Declaration of Independence
Jewish/Polish immigrant and banker who secured financial aid for the Revolutionary war by providing loans to American leaders and military.
Fierce Virginian patriot and orator who said "Give me liberty or give me death!" and fought against strong government, whether it was the King of England or the Constitution.
Author of the Declaration of Independence who defined unalienable rights as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Marquis de Lafayette
French army officer who aided Washington, led American troops at Yorktown, and encouraged French people to support revolutionary ideas.
Wrote Common Sense to encourage independence from England. Wrote The American Crisis to encourage American troops during the war.
Delegate at the Continental Congress and Commander of the Continental Army who led troops across the Delaware, inspired troops at Valley Forge, and accepted the British surrender.
Sons of Liberty
A secret society that formed to protect the rights of the colonists and fight taxation by the British government. Famous for protests at the Liberty Tree in Boston.
Declaration of Independence
July 4th, 1776, the Americans explained that they needed to separate from Britain because the government was violating the natural rights of its subjects.
John Paul Jones
Naval officer who won a key victory at sea during the Revolutionary War: "I have not yet begun to fight!"
Articles of Confederation
First government of the United States after the Revolution. The federal gov lacked the power to tax and there was no president. The states were too strong, so the gov. needed to change
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolutionary War. British soldiers on their way to seize weapons and arrest rebel leaders were stopped by minutemen. The "shot heard round the world"
Turning point of the Revolutionary War. The American victory convinced France to ally with the United States.
Battle of Yorktown
Final battle of the Revolutionary War in which the Americans surrounded British troops on a peninsula and forced a surrender.
Winter camps for the Continental troops who endured difficult circumstances and received formal military training.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
Ended the Revolutionary War. Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation.
The government's inability to stop this uprising showed that a stronger national government was needed and delegates met at the Constitutional Convention.
In 1787, delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation. They had to discuss how representation in Congress should be determined and how much power to give to the federal government.
It solved the problem of representation by creating a bicameral legislature. One house would be based on population (Virginia Plan) and one house would be based on equal representation (New Jersey Plan)
Considered the Father of the Constitution because he provided detailed notes and wrote much of what was used for the Constitution.
Law-making branch of government. Congress includes the House of Representatives and Senate.
House of Representatives
House of Congress that has representation based on population. States with larger populations have more representatives.
Upper house in Congress in which representation from each state is equal. Each state gets two senators.
5 slaves will be counted as 3 people for the purpose of determining a state's representation in Congress.
Interprets the laws. The Supreme Court is made up of 9 justices.
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions unconstitutional.
Enforces and carries out the laws. Includes the president, vice-president and cabinet members.
The power of the president to reject a bill and prevent it from becoming a law
Accusing a public officer of a crime. House of Representatives can do this to the president.
Created a process for orderly expansion in the United States by establishing a system for admitting new states. First attempt to stop the spread of slavery.
The federal government only has powers that are specifically granted to it in the Constitution
We elect representatives, who in turn, make the laws for us.
Checks and Balances
Each branch is given specific ways to limit the power of other branches so that no branch can abuse its power.
Separation of Powers
The federal government is divided into three branches, each with different responsibilities.
The federal government and state governments share power.
The people have the power and authority over our government through voting.
The rights of individuals are protected by the Bill of Rights.
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution. Ratified to get Anti-Federalists to support the Constitution.
Created in 1787, it is a living document that explains the purpose of and the process for how our government works.
2/3 of both houses of Congress may propose an amendment. 3/4 of all states must ratify, or approve, the change.
Protects basic freedoms: speech, religion, press, petition, and assembly
Right to bear arms
No citizen has to quarter soldiers in his or her home.
Freedom from unreasonable search and seizure. A warrant is required.
Rights of the accused are protected by due process before the government can deprive you of your rights. This includes not testifying against yourself.
Right to a speedy trial, right to an attorney, and right to confront witnesses.
Right to trial by jury in civil suits.
No cruel or unusual punishment, no excessive bail or fines.
Constitutional rights do not deny other rights.
Any powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved for the states (or the people)
Group that wanted the Constitution to be ratified to ensure a strong central government.
Group opposed to the ratification of the Constitution because they believed it threatened individual liberties. Wanted a Bill of Rights.
Anti-federalist who refused to sign the Constitution because it did not contain a Bill of Rights.
Federalist leader who wrote a majority of the Federalist papers to get the Constitution ratified.
Essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay to convince people to support ratifying the Constitution.
An economic system with minimal government intrusion/taxation and private ownership of property
Complaints against King George III and Parliament in the Declaration of Independence that led to certain provisions in the U.S. government.
Defined by Thomas Jefferson in the Declaration, each person is born with the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
Responsibilities of a citizen that make our democracy better: voting, jury duty, obeying laws, staying informed
Founder of the Connecticut colony and wrote the first constitution in America.
Charles de Montesquieu
French thinker who influenced our Constitution with his ideas on separation of powers.
English thinker who influenced Thomas Jefferson with his idea of natural rights: rights that every person is born with.
English judge who influenced our judicial system with his emphasis on the importance of due process. His ratio: "better that ten guilty escape than one innocent suffer"
Refusing to obey laws you find unjust. Example: Boston Tea Party
First Great Awakening
A religious movement that encouraged colonists to think independently, value equality, and united the colonies in their first national experience.
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