Ancient China Key Terms
Terms in this set (33)
Huang He (Yellow River)
Flows across China for more than 2000 miles, gets its name from the yellow soils that it carries across from Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean
Chiang Jiang (Yangtze River)
flows for about 3900 miles across Central Asia
First rulers, probably part of the dynasty, not much known about this dynasty
built 1st Chinese cities divided into groups, most powerful king's family; became powerful because they controlled land and had strong armies
one of the first cities in northern China
governed the king's land, military leaders who commanded their own armies
nobles whose wealth came from land they owned
priests scratched questions on bones, then put metal rods inside the bones causing them to crack; cracks represent an answer
reasons for the weakness of the Shang Dynasty by c. 1000 B.C.
Natural disasters- severe floods and droughts
Corruption in the government
Big gap between rich and poor
a. feared and mistrusted each other
b. didn't work together
Zhou family easily overthrew the Shang and became rulers
Claimed Shang Dynasty had lost the Mandate of Heaven created a large bureaucracy, introduced coins, iron, and new weapons
government officials who carry out the responsibilities of the government
Mandate of Heaven
the support of the deities to rule
Accomplishments of the Zhou Dynasty
Created a large bureaucracy
introduced coins, iron, and new weapons (crossbow, saddle, and stirrups)
"Era of the warring States" 500 B.C.
local warlords fought one another for land, Zhou leaders lost control over much of the empire
Crossbow, Saddle, and Stirrups
uses a crank to pull the string and shoot arrows with force
allowed warriors to use spears and crossbows more effectively
province/rulers that based his rule on the ideas of Legalism, made a central government stronger than ever before. Cruel leader, strongly disliked by scholars and farmers
people are good nature, believed the government should treat people fairly they will obey, taught people to respect/obey their parents/elders, and ruler stressed the importance of education
source of suffering is the government interfering in peoples lives; solution to limit government's power, individuals should get touch with (kt rest)
Qin Shi Huangdi
"The First Qin Emperor" made changes in China government that would last over 2000 years.
established in 221 BCE at the end of the Warring States Period following the decline of the Zhou dynasty; founded by Qin Shi Huangdi; reorganized China into large provinces; developed strong military; Great Wall was built; census introduced
The Grand Canal
The oldest and longest man-made canal. Built during the Sui Dynasty and still around today.
Nomadic village in the North that posed a threat to the Qin dynasty and prompted the building of The Great Wall. Often attacked farms and villages.
The Great Wall of China
Chinese defensive fortification designed to keep out nomadic invaders from the north. It was started during the Qin dynasty., Built by Shi Huangdi
Liou Bing a farmer/peasant who became a general- In 206BC he overthrew the Qin Dynasty and founded Han Dynasty. Declared himself the Exalted Emperor
The most important Han Emperor: expanded the Empire in all directions; created the Civil Service System based upon Confucian learning; established Imperial University; promoted the Silk Roads
Civil Service examinations
Difficult tests in Ancient China created by Wudi to determine whether or not one qualifies for openings in government positions; highest score gets the job.
farmer who works land owned by another and pays rent either in cash or crops
Inventions in the Han Dynasty
1) Millers used newly invented waterwheels to grind more grain, and miners used new iron drill bits to mine more salt.
2) Ironworkers invented steel
3) Paper was used to record information
4) Medicine improved and food prevented disease and herbs were used to cure illnesses.
6) the rudder was a new way to move sails of ships.
the Chinese practice of inserting fine needles through the skin at specific points to cure disease or relieve pain
Chinese official under Emperor Wudi; he was sent on a journey through China to form an alliance with the Xiongu tribe to the west. His travels led to a vast increase in trade and the establishment of the Silk Road
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending some 6,440 km (4,000 mi) and linking China with the Roman Empire. Marco Polo followed the route on his journey to Cathay.
capital of Han Dynasty