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81 terms

nutrition

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The basic building blocks of protein are
amino acid
The presence of ___chemically distinguishes
nitrogen
Dietary proteins supply ___ kcal per gram
4
A body function that is not associated with protein is
cholesterol synthesis
Overtime, if protein intake does not meet the body's protein needs for building and repair of tissues
skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and the liver decrease in size, excessive body fluidbegins to accumulate in the extracellular spaces, and the immune system fails to function properly.
which of the following foods provides all of the essential amino acids?
milk-only animal protein
The side chain, or R portion, of an amino acid
determines the name of the amino acid
Which of the following amino acids is classified as a "conditionally essential" amino acid?
tyrosine-conditionally essential when a person has PKU
Foods containing all essential amino acis in the proportion needed by the body are designated
high quality protein foods
Good sources of high quality (complete) proten include all of the following except
whole wheat
When over 10 amino acids are chemically bonded by peptide bonds, the resulting product is known as
polypeptide
Cooking an egg destroys its physiological property by
denaturing
When two or more plant proteins are combined to compensate for deficienccies in essential amino acid content in each protein, the proteins are called
complementary proteins
DNA-coded instruction for protein synthesis consist of a sequence of __nucleotides per unit
3
The nucleotide units that represent a specific amino acid in protein synthesis are called
codons
The genetic disorder sickle-cell anemia produces a profound change in ___structure.
hemoglobin
The sequential order of the amino acids in the polypeptide chain is called the
primary structure
World wide approximately ___ of proteins comes from animal sources
35% (higher in U.S.)
Protein quality is determines by all of the following except
the food cost
Which of the following conditions would result in negative nitrogen balance?
Cushing's disease
Nitrogen makes up approximately__ of the weight of an amino acid.
16%
The RDA for most healthy adults is
0.8g/kg of body weight
When food proteins reach the stomach, HCL___the protein.
denatures
Which of the following enzymes aids in digesting polypeptides into shorter peptides and amino acids?
trypsin
Which of the following is a function of protein?
providing structural support to body cells, producing antibodies to fight infection, and contributing to acid-base balance.
Edema in the lower extremities may appear when there is a sever lack of dierary protein because__
Blood protein levels drop and fluid shifts into interstitial spaces
Amino acids are required for the synthesis of
enzymes, neurotransmitters, and some hormones
A diet that is deficient in carbohydrate will ultimately force the liver and, to a lesser extent, the kidneys to
produe glucose from amino acids (glucogenesis)
Proteins help regulate blood pH by
accepting and releasing hydrogen ions
___ are organic compounds that help to maintain acid-base balance within a narrow range
buffers
The proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses are
antibodies
The lack of an immune response to foreign compounds entering the body is called
anergy
A high-quality protein used as a standard for measuing the quality of other proteins is
egg white
The biological value of a food protein is a measure of
the weight gained by a growing rat after eating the food protein for 10 days
An individual who is consuming adequate protein, but only half the adequate level of energy, will probably be in
negative nitrogen balance
Most Americans consume___dietary protein as determined bu the RDA
excessive amounts of
To meet basic protein needs, an athlete needs to
eat foods from all five groups in the recommended amounts
A high-protein diet is discourages fro patients with
kidney disease
A vegetarian diet may be low in
vitamin B-12, iron, and calcium
When plant proteins are compares to animal proteins, they
are usually deficient in one or more essential amino acids
The recommended amount of protein as a percentage of total energy intake is
10%-35%
The major symptoms of kwashiorkor in children are
edema and growth failure
Kwashiorkor
is a disease of severely deficient protein intake
Protein energy malnutrition is also known as
marasmus
Which of the following is a sign of protein deficiency?
edema, mild to moderate weight loss, and poor resistance to infection
After major surgery, hospital patients may be at risk of PEM due to
poor prior health, low dietary intakes, and increased needs for recovery
An example of two incomplete protein foods eaten together to produce a complete protein meal are
red beans and rice
A total vegetarian or vegan will eat
only foods from plant sources
How many calories does alcohol provide?
7kcal/g
The highest concentration of ethanol is found in
distilled spirits
The alcohol content of an 80-proof tequilla is
40%
WIne generally contains___alcohol
5-14%
The process of fermentation involves all of the following except
simple sugars such as maltose, yeast, and carbon dioxide are involved
A standard drink is defined as a
5 ounce glass of wine
A standard drink contains ___grams of alcohol
15
Alcohol is absorbed in the small intestine by
simple diffusion
Alcohol absorption occurs in the
stomach and small intestine
The ADH pathway of alcohol metabolism converts ethanol into the compound
acetyl-CoA
The main organ responsible for ethanol metabolism is the
liver
Which alcohol metabolic pathway is utilized with low to moderate consumption of alcohol?
alcohol dehydrogenase
When the enzyme system MEOS is induced, alcohol tolerance ___because the rate of alcohol metabolism____
increases; increases
The symptoms of acetaldehyde buildup during alcohol metabolism include
flushing, rapid heartbeat, and hyperventilation
Women absorb 30-35% more ethanol directly from the stomach than men because women
have lower amounts of alcohol deyhydrogenase in the cells lining the stomach
A typical rate of alcohol metabolism for a social drinker is
1/2 drink per hour
Binge drinking for a male is defined as having___or more drinks on a single occasion
5
A blood alcohol level of ___ is defined as legal intoxication in the US and Canada
0.08
What percent of North Americans consume alcohol ?
62%
Binge drinking on college campuses is associated with
academic problems, auto accidents, and sexual abuse
The population group with the highest rate of alcohol consumption is
college students
Benefits of moderate alcohol consumption unclude lower rates of
cardiovascular disease
Detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption include higher rates of
high blood pressure and stroke, cancers of the mouth and throat, and liver diseaseand liver failure
An early sign of alcohol-induced liver damage is
steatosis
Liver cirrhosis is characterized by
decreased synthesis of proteins made in the liver, abnormal retention of fluid in the abdomen, and poor nutritional status
Alcoholism is associated with all of the following except
type 1 diabetes
Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is the ___ deficiency disease that results from sever alcohol abuse
thiamin
Alcoholics often have trouble with night blindness. This results from
impaired absorption and transport of vitamin A
The recommendation for alcohol consumption during pregnancy is
no alcohol at all
The problems of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependency
affects nearly 1 in 3 Americans over a lifetime
Which of the following is not a common nutritional concern in alcoholics
vitamin A toxicity
Medications used to treat alcohol dependence act on the
both the brain to reduce alcohol cravings and the liver to block complete metabolism of alcohol
The risk of developing a problem with alcohol is higher in those
with a biological parent with alcohol problems