Exam 1 Blue
Terms in this set (50)
which of the following Best describes the logic of scientific inquiry?
I can expect certain test results to see whether I can accept my hypotheis
Which of the following is (are) TRUE for natural selection?
A, B and C
Which of the following BEST demonstrates the unity among all organisms?
DNA Structure and function
All of the following are part of a prokaryotic cell EXCEPT
About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which 4 of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living matter?
Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen
What kind of chemical bonds between water molecules give water special properties such as high cohesion, surface tension and the ability to absorb large amount of heat?
What is the difference between covalent bonds and ionic bonds?
Covalent bonds involve the sharing of electrons between atoms, ionic bonds involve donating and accepting electrons between atoms resulting in the electrical attraction between atoms
The molecular mass of glucose is 180 g/mol. Which of the following procedures should you carry out to make a 2 M solution of glucose?
Dissolve 180g of glucose in a small volume of water, and then add more water until the final volume is .5L
Why does ice float in liquid water?
Hydrogen bonds stabilize ad keep the water molecules of ice farther apart than the water molecules of liquid water
One of the buffers that contributes to pH stability in human blood is carbonic acid. Carbonic acid is a weak acid that dissociates into a bicarbonate ion and a hydrogen ion Thus,
The HClO3- to act as a base and remove excess H+ with the formation of H2CO3
The element present in ALL organic molecules is
All of the following contain amino acids EXCEPT,
Polysaccharides, polynucleotides, and polypeptides are similar in that they
are synthesized from monomers by dehydration reactions
Humans can digest starch, but not cellulose because
humans have enzymes that can hydrolyze the alpha glycosidic linkages of starch but not the Beta gylcosidic linkage of cellulose
Which of the following is NOT a polymer?
Which two functional groups are found in all amino acids?
Carboxyl and amino
At which level of protein structure are interactions between the amino acids side chains most important?
Which of the following statements concerning unsaturated fats is True.
They have multiple double bonds in the carbon chains of their fatty chains
Which of the following statements Best summarizes the difference between DNA and RNA
DNA nucleotides contain deoxyribose sugar, whereas RNA contains ribose sugar
Hydrophobic substances such as vegetable oil are
nonpolar substance that repel water molecules
When biologists wish to study the internal ultrastructure of cells they can achieve the finest resolution by using a
transmission electronic microscope
A primary objective of cell fractionation is to
separate the major organelles so that their particular functions can be determined
what are the evidence that support the endosymbiont theory?
return to this
The ______ is the site of the synthesis of membrane proteins and proteins destined to be secreted out of cell whereas the ________ is the site of the synthesis of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins.
bound ribosomes on rough ER, free ribosome
Which of the following correctly describes the pathway taken by a protein destined for secretion from an animal cell?
rough er-transport vesicle- golgi apparatus-transport vesicle-plasma membrane
Thylakoids, DNA and ribosomes are all components found in ?
Which structure function pair is mismatched?
ribosome ----lipid synthesis
in an animal cell, DNA may be found?
only in the nucleus and mitochondria
Cells of ovaries and testes synthesize lipid containing hormones estrogen and testosterone respectively, Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore abundant in these cells?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulumn
What are mitochondria and chloroplasts not classified as part of the endomembrane system?
they are not derived from the endoplasmic reticulumn or golgi apparatus
Which cell type has abundant lysosomes?
phagocytic white blood cells
What do the cell walls of plants and the extracellular matrix of animal cells have in common?
they have functional connections with the cytoskeleton inside the cell
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is TRUE?
Movement of cilia and flagella is the result of motor proteins causing microtubules to move relative to each other
Plasmodesmata in plant cells are most similar in function to_______in animal cells?
Which of the following types of molecules are the MAJOR structural components of the cell membrane?
phosphoilipids and proteins
Which of the following us/are the way that the membrane of certain plants are able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold in winter
by increasing the high proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbon tails in phospholipids
The movement of O2 and CO2 into and out of a cell through the cell membrane phospholipid bilayer is an example________, where as the movement of water into and out of a cell thorugh aquaporins embedded in the cell membrane is an example of________.
diffusion, facilitated diffusion
The disease hypercholesterolemia (high blood cholesterol) is characterized by which of the following?
defective cholesterol receptors on the cell membrane
both sodium and potassium pump and proton pump
The difference between pinocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that
pinocytosis is nonselective in the molecules it brings into the cell, whereas receptor mediated endocytosis involves specific receptor therefore offers more selectively
in order for a protein to be an integral membrane protein it would have to be
amphipathic, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions
The extracellular matrix participants in the regulaation of animal cell behavior by communicating information from the outside to the inside of the cell via which of the following?
Mammalian blood contains the equivalent of .15M NaCl. What will happen if red blood cells are transferred to disitilled water
The red blood cells will take up water by osmosis, swell, and eventually burst or lyse
In a naturally properly folded cellular protein where would you expect to find a hydrophobic amino acid such as leucine?
B and C
Which of following membrane activities requires energy from ATP hydrolysis
Sodium /Potassium pump across the cell membrane against their concentration gradients
Which parts of animal cell membrane function to mediate cell to cell recognition?
Carbohydrates attached to glycoproteins and glycolipids
In cell signaling the protein membrane receptors are activated, what usually happens?
the receptor changes conformation after binding with signal molecules
In signal transduction how is a signal transmitted through a series of proteins?
the signal is transmitted by phosphorylation of each protein which leads to each proteins conformational change
The function of phosphatases in signal transduction is best described as to?
inactivate protein kinases and turn off the signal transduction
What is the greatest advantage of having multiple steps in a signal transduction pathway?
Multiple steps provide for greater possible amplification of a signal