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72 terms

Ch 13 Anatomy

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pulmonary
The ___ circuit sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen and unload carbon dioxide.
systemic
The ____ circuit sends oxygenated blood and nutrients to all body cells and removes wastes.
thoracic, diaphragm
The heart is a hollow, cone-shaped muscular pump that lies within the __ cavity and rests on the ___.
mediastinum, lungs, sternum
The heart is within the ___, bordered laterally by the ___, posteriorly by the vertebral column, and anteriorly by the ___.
base
The __ of the heart, which attaches to several large blood vessels, lies beneath the second rib.
pericardium
Protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
fibrous pericardium
Membrane of dense connective tissue that is lined by the parietal pericardium
visceral pericardium
The innermost of the two layers of the pericardium
parietal
The visceral pericardium doubles back on itself to become the ___ pericardium.
parietal pericardium
The tough outermost layer of the pericardium that is attached to the diaphragm and the sternum.
epicardium
The ___ protects the heart by reducing friction.
epicardium
Outer wall of the heart.
myocardium
Wall of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart chambers.
endocardium
The inner wall of the heart.
endocardium
The Purkinje fibers are located in the ___.
atria
Chambers that receive blood returning to the heart.
ventricles
Chambers that receive blood from the atria and contract to force blood out of the heart into arteries.
right atrium
The ___ ___ receives blood from the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava.
coronary sinus
Drains blood into the right atrium from the myocardium of the heart itself.
tricuspid
Valve that lies between the right atrium and right ventricle.
tricuspid
Valve that permits blood to move from the right atrium into the right ventricle and prevents backflow.
chordae tendineae
"heart strings" are tiny white collagenic cords that anchor the cusps to the ventricular walls.
papillary muscles
Chordae tendineae originate from small mounds of cardiac muscle tissue called ___ ___.
ventricle
The papillary muscles contract when the ___ contracts.
thinner
The right ventricle has a ___ muscular wall than the left ventricle.
left ventricle
The ___ ___ has to force blood out to greater areas than the right chamber.
increasing, tricuspid
When the muscular wall of the right ventricle contracts, the blood inside its chamber is put under __ pressure, and the ___ valve closes.
pulmonary
Arteries that lead to the lungs.
pulmonary
Valve that allows blood to leave the right ventricle and prevents backflow into the ventricular chamber.
left atrium
The ___ ___ receives blood from the lungs through 4 pulmonary veins.
bicuspid
Blood passes from the left atrium into the left ventricle through the ___ valve.
aorta
When the left ventricle contracts, the bicuspid valve closes passively, and the only exit is through the ___.
atrioventricular
The mitral and tricuspid valves are called ____ valves because they are between the atria and ventricles.
semilunar
The pulmonary and aortic valves are called ____.
low, high, right, venae cavae
Blood that is __ in oxygen and __ in carbon dioxide enters the __ atrium through the __ __ and coronary sinus.,
tricuspid
As the right atrial wall contracts, the blood passes through the __ valve and enters the right ventricle.
closes, pulmonary, pulmonary, arteries.
When the right ventricular wall contracts, the tricuspid valve __, and blood moves through the __ valve to the __ trunk and its ___.
capillaries, alveoli
From the pulmonary arteries, blood enters the ___ associated with the __ of the lungs.
pulmonary
Freshly oxygenated blood returns to the heart through the __ veins that lead to the left atrium.
biscuspid
The left atrial wall contracts, and blood moves through the __ valve and into the chamber of the left ventricle.
aortic, aorta
When the left ventricular wall contracts, the mitral valve closes and blood moves through the __ valve and into the ___.
coronary arteries
First two branches of the aorta that supply blood to the tissues of the heart.
myocardial
The heart must beat continually to supply blood to the body tissues. To do this, __ cells require a constant supply of freshly oxygenated blood.
myocardium
Branches of the coronary arteries feed the many capillaries of the ___.
anastomoses
Detours in circulation that may supply oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium when a coronary artery is blocked.
cardiac
Veins that drain the myocardium.
coronary sinus
Cardiac veins join an enlarged vein on the heart's posterior surface called the __ ___ which empties into the right atrium.
a-v, ventricles
When pressure in the ventricles is low, the pressure difference between the atria and ventricles causes the ___ valves to open and the __ to fill.
ventricles
About 70% of the returning blood enters the ventricles prior to contraction.
atria, ventricles
When the ___ contract, the remaining 30% of returning blood is pushed into the ___.
increases, close
As the ventricles contract, ventricular pressure __ sharply, and as soon as the ventricular pressure exceeds the atrial pressure, the A-V valves ___.
A-V
During ventricular contraction, the __ valves remain closed.
pulmonary,aortic
When ventricular pressure exceeds the pressure in the pulmonary trunk and aorta, the __ and ___ valves open.
closing
The lubb sound occurs during ventricular contraction when the A-V valves are ____.
S-A node
A small, elongated mass of specialized cardiac muscle tissue just beneath the epicardium. It's located in the right atrium near the opening of the superior vena cava.
S-A
Node that can reach threshold on their own.
myocardium
Without stimulation from nerve fibers or any other outside agents, the S-A node cells initiate impulses that spread into the surrounding ___.
S-A node
The cardiac conduction system starts with the _ __.
Atrial syncytium
CCS: S-A node ---> ___ ___.
Junctional fibers
CCS: Atrial syncytium ---> ___ ___.
A-V node
CCS: Junctional fibers ---> __ __.
A-V bundle
CCS: A-V node ---> ___ ___
Bundle branches
CCS: A-V bundle ---> ___ ___.
Purkinje fibers
CCS: Bundle branches ---> __ ___.
Ventricular syncytium
CCS: Purkinje fibers ---> ___ ___.
myocardium, cardiac cycle
An ECG is a recording of the electrical charges that occur in the ___ during a __ ___.
polarized
Between cardiac cycles, the muscle fibers remain ___ with no detectable electrical changes.
S-A node, atrial
When the __ ___ triggers a cardiac impulse, ___ fibers depolarize, producing an electrical change.
P wave
ECG: Depolarization of the atrial fibers that leads to contraction of the atria.
QRS Complex
ECG: Depolarization of ventricular fibers prior to the contraction of ventricular walls.
depolarize
When cardiac impulse reaches ventricular fibers, they rapidly depolarize.
T wave
ECG: The electrical changes occurring as the ventricular muscle fibers repolarize slowly.