Biological Psych: Neurons, Neural Firing, and Neurotransmitters

Nerve cells (hence why neur-on) in the brain that transfer information to other nerve cells. There are billions of them, with trillions of connections between them.
Cell Body
The (normally) biggest part of a neuron that contains the nucleus.
It's the path an electrical signal travels through a neuron. It goes: Dendrite, Axon, Terminal Button.
The part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and gives it to the cell body.
Sends information to the dendrites of another cell through electrical signals (neural impulses aka action potential)
Myelin Sheath
A cover that goes over the Axon to speed up neural impulses. Made from Glial Cells.
Terminal Button
The end of an axon. It's the location where neurotransmitters are sent from.
Chemicals stored in synaptic vesicles.
Example: Seratonin, Endurfins, Dopamine, Acetylcholine.
Synaptic Vesicles
The parts of a terminal button where neurotransmitters are stored.
Receptor Sites
The area on a dendrite that receives neurotransmitters from other neurons.
The space between the terminal button of one neuron and the receptor site of another neuron.
Synaptic Space
The gap between two neurons.
An atom with an unequal number of protons and electrons. Basically an unbalanced atom.
Resting Potential
It's the point of the firing process where an axon is ready to fire but isn't currently firing. When at this stage the neuron is called "Polarized".

Comparison: When a ton of dominos are standing still next to each other. It's ready to fall but hasn't yet.
Action Potential
(Neural Impulse) An electrical charge that travels down the axon.
All or None Law
An axon is either firing an action potential or it's not. There's no in-between.
Absolute Refractory Period
The moment after an axon has just fired where it CAN'T prepare to fire again yet.
Relative Refractory Period
The period after the Absolute Refractory Period where the axon is now able to fire again (though it'd take a bit more energy to shoot again now since it's not fully setup yet.)

Comparison: If you knocked over a really long line of dominoes and then halfway through started making the ones at the start stand up again.
Threshold of Excitation
The needed amount of energy for the action potential to occur (for the axon to fire) is reached.
Sub-threshold of Excitation
Part of energy needed to reach the threshold of excitation has been acquired.
Subthresholds of Excitation can be added together to reach the total threshold.
The type of neurotransmitter that (excites) opens the receptor sites of other neurons
The type of neurotransmitter that blocks other neurotransmitters from getting in
Neurotransmitters are taken back from the receiving neuron's receptor site and put back into the sending neuron's terminal button.
A drug that (excites) opens the receptor sites of the neuron
A drug that blocks the receptor sites of a neuron
Linked to Schizophrenia, it's an excitatory neurotransmitter that's associated with attention, learning, happiness (reward pathway), and muscle movements.
Linked to depression and autism, it's an inhibitory neurotransmitter that's associated with emotional states(sadness/happiness), sleep, hunger, and perception.
An inhibitory neurotransmitter associated with pain, pregnancy, perception, exercise, and positive emotions.
An excitatory neurotransmitter associated with Alzheimer's, paralysis, memory, and learning.
An inhibitory neurotransmitter associated with Huntington's disease, seizures, insomnia, and personality changes.
A (usually) excitatory and (sometimes) inhibitory neurotransmitter (yes, both!) that's associated with arousal, learning, memory, eating, heartbeat, depression, and anxiety.