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Last Unit--american pageant 11th edition.

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

a mutual effort by the US and Soviet Union to limit the growth of their nuclear weapons but still maintaining a sufficient amount to deter a surprise attack


(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.

Yom Kippur War

The war where Palestinians attacked Isreal on their holiday

Election of 1960

Election ending Eisenhower's two terms as President and had Nixon as the Republican candidate and Kennedy as the Democratic candidate


Senator who accused hundreds of American citizens as having communists toes, part of the Red Scare of the 1950's

Emmett Till

Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.

An American Dilemma

A book by Gunnar Myrdal that exposed the contradiction between American equality and the treatment of blacks

To Secure These Rights

Report produced by the Committee of Civil Rights in 1957 that called for the elimination of segregation in armed forces--> Truman

Sweatt v. painter

1950 separate but equal formula generally unacceptable in professional schools

Montgomery Bus Boycott

protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.

Brown V. Board

(1954) the Supreme Court rule that separate but equal was unconstitutional

The Warren court

Chief Justice Earl Warren's court from 1954-1969; controversial decisions: integration, rights of the accused, redistricting for voting; "judicial activism" - the court is now legislating?

Orval Faubus

The Governor who opposed the integration of Central High, Sent the Little Rock National Guard to keep them out. Then gave them no protection at all.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Organization which aimed to mobilize the power of black churches on behalf of black rights

Sit in movement

Began in Greensborowhen 4 black HS'ers demanded service at white only counter, with numbers growing to 1000 by end of week.

Operation Wetback

Program which apprehended and returned some one million illegal immigrants to Mexico

Interstate Highway Act of 1956

$27 billion plan to build forty two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways

John Dulles

Ike's Secretary of State, "brinksmanship" - don't back down theory, treatened retaliation on USSR but Ike wanted conciliation

Policy of boldness

Policy under Eisenhower building up Strategic Air Command w/ nuclear bombs as threats.

Ho Chi Minh

1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable

battle of Dien Bien Phu

1954, the communists beat the French at this battle, forcing the French to abandon their colony

John Lewis

head of SNCC

Selma to Montgomery

Peaceful march in Alabama that led to 70 African American hospitalized by law enforcement officials

George Wallace

racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever") authorized bloody sunday.

Bloody Sunday

After a march to Montgomery Alabama in March of 1965 Wallace authorized State Troops to stop the march, beating and killing strikers.


Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success


Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.

Civil Rights Act

1964 law prohibiting discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.

Plessy V. Ferguson

sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal

Malcom X

Encouraged violence and wanted separate black communites

Little Rock Crisis

1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.

Title 9

Public edu. must provide same amount of money for women as for men


requires public places to have handicapped accessible restrooms


Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

1967 Newark Riots

Major Civil Disturbance--six days of rioting, looting, and destruction left 26 dead and hundreds injured.

Double V

African-Americans demanded a "Double V" campaign to gain victory over racial discrimination at home as well as over the Axis abroad.

Jackie Robinson

The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.

smith v. allwright

court declared practice of excluding nonwhites from political party primary elections was unconstitutional

Taft-Hartley Act

outlawed the closed shop, made unions liabable for jurisdictional disputes and required union leaders to take a non-communist oath.

Operation Dixie

CIO's operation aimed at unionizing southern textile workers and steelworkers.

Employment Act

1946, committed the government to promoting full employment and production

GI Bill

law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations

Korean War

The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.

Levitt Brothers

contruction industry owners whose first "Levittown" sprouted on NY's Long Island in the 1940s, builders revolutionzed the techniques of home construction

Baby Boom

At the end of the 50s more than 50 million babies

Yalta Conference

1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war


Here FDR wanted Stalin to enter Asian war. He agreed to attack Japan within 3 mnths. to receive few islands and joint control over Manchuria RR.

International Monetary Fund

a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

an international bank established in 1944 to help member nations reconstruct and develop, esp. by guaranteeing loans: a specialized agency of the United Nations.

United Nations Conference

April 25, 1945. 50 nations, based upon idealism, fairer power and an attempt to prevent any wars.

Nuremberg trials

Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime Hung 12

Containment Doctrine

a foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United States to isolate the Soviet Union, "contain" its advances, and resist its enroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if neccesary.

Truman Doctrine

President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology

George marshall

United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959)

The Marshall Plan

Spent 12.5 Billion over 4 years in providing aid to 16 countries.

National Security Act

Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.

Department of Defense

the federal department responsible for safeguarding national security of the UnitedStates

National Security council

a committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security


an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security Brit, France, Belgium, netherlands...

Douglas MacArthur

United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II

Mao Zedong

Chinese communist leader (1893-1976) Pushed Jiang Jieshi (nationalist out of China to Taiwan.

Jiang Jieshi

Chinese nationalist leader that was against Mao; supported by the US; loss to Mao, so he and his followers fled to Taiwan

Hydrogen Bomb

One thousand more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.

Loyalty Program

1947 Truman ordered security checks of govt employees to root out communists

Loyalty Oaths

Truman orders background checks on 3 millon fed. employees

Smith Act

illegal to discuss overthrowing the government

Dennis V. US

11 individuals charged for rioting and anarchy, they violated smith's act

McCarran Internal Security Bill

Vetoed by Truman, authorized the president to arrest and detain suspicious people during an "internal security emergency"


a congressional Committee that investigated Commmunist influence inside and outside the US gov. after WWII

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg

Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.

Point Four Program

plan to lend US money and technical aid to underdeveloped lands to help them help themselves

Housing Act of 1949

authorized government-constructed housing

Social Security Act of 1950

extended old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries

June 25, 1950

date N. Korea invades South Korea 38th paralell--Truman used it to expand militarism

38th paralell

latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximately the midpoint of the peninsula

Battle of Inchon

The battle began on September 15, 1950, and ended around September 17, MacCarthur landed behind enemy lines rather then in expected Pusan.


River that forms part of Korea's northern border with China.


First Satelitte, (Russia) began Race for Space. October 4, 1957

Missile Gap

in the race to see who had more missiles and war equipment it was the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.

National Defense and Education act

authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the improvement of teaching sciences and languages

U-2 Incident

the downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960

Hungarian Revolt

When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.

Suez Crisis

When US offered financial support to President Nasser of Egypt who announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, they withdrew it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject causing Nassar to nationalize the Suez canal crippiling European oil supply, from the Persian Gulf. France and Britain retaliated by striking Egypt, but Eisenhower refused to support them with oil as expected.

Eisenhower Doctrine.

policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country

Landrum Griffith Act

prevent bullying tactics and would make labor leaders keep accurate financial records.

massive retaliation

The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.

military industrial complex

Ike's warning of a conspiracy between military and economy to create war in order to make contractors wealthy in Farewell Address

Geneva Conference

A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.

Gamel Abdel Nassar

The hard-nosed Arab-nationalist president of Egypt during the Suez Canal crisis in 1956.

Nikita Khrushnev

premier of russia during space race; used many propaganda techniques to try to fool the world of Russia's intentions

Fidel Castro

led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist

John F. Kennedy

represented the democratic party with his "New Frontier" platform in the 1960 election. He was a major contributor to the space program and to the civil rights movement.


McCarthyism was the communist witch hunts of the 1950's.

Ngo Dinh Diem

a strong anti-communist, proclaimed South Vietnam a republic on Oct. 26, 1956 and became its first president.

Dwight Eisenhower

The president after Truman who waged the Cold War. His secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, believed in a more aggressice stand.

New Frontier

The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.

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