a mutual effort by the US and Soviet Union to limit the growth of their nuclear weapons but still maintaining a sufficient amount to deter a surprise attack
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
Yom Kippur War
The war where Palestinians attacked Isreal on their holiday
Election of 1960
Election ending Eisenhower's two terms as President and had Nixon as the Republican candidate and Kennedy as the Democratic candidate
Senator who accused hundreds of American citizens as having communists toes, part of the Red Scare of the 1950's
Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.
An American Dilemma
A book by Gunnar Myrdal that exposed the contradiction between American equality and the treatment of blacks
To Secure These Rights
Report produced by the Committee of Civil Rights in 1957 that called for the elimination of segregation in armed forces--> Truman
Sweatt v. painter
1950 separate but equal formula generally unacceptable in professional schools
Montgomery Bus Boycott
protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Brown V. Board
(1954) the Supreme Court rule that separate but equal was unconstitutional
The Warren court
Chief Justice Earl Warren's court from 1954-1969; controversial decisions: integration, rights of the accused, redistricting for voting; "judicial activism" - the court is now legislating?
The Governor who opposed the integration of Central High, Sent the Little Rock National Guard to keep them out. Then gave them no protection at all.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Organization which aimed to mobilize the power of black churches on behalf of black rights
Sit in movement
Began in Greensborowhen 4 black HS'ers demanded service at white only counter, with numbers growing to 1000 by end of week.
Program which apprehended and returned some one million illegal immigrants to Mexico
Interstate Highway Act of 1956
$27 billion plan to build forty two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways
Ike's Secretary of State, "brinksmanship" - don't back down theory, treatened retaliation on USSR but Ike wanted conciliation
Policy of boldness
Policy under Eisenhower building up Strategic Air Command w/ nuclear bombs as threats.
Ho Chi Minh
1950s and 60s; communist leader of North Vietnam; used geurilla warfare to fight anti-communist, American-funded attacks under the Truman Doctrine; brilliant strategy drew out war and made it unwinnable
battle of Dien Bien Phu
1954, the communists beat the French at this battle, forcing the French to abandon their colony
head of SNCC
Selma to Montgomery
Peaceful march in Alabama that led to 70 African American hospitalized by law enforcement officials
racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever") authorized bloody sunday.
After a march to Montgomery Alabama in March of 1965 Wallace authorized State Troops to stop the march, beating and killing strikers.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
Civil Rights Act
1964 law prohibiting discrimination of African Americans in employement, voting, or public accomidations. Also said there could be no discrimination against race, color, sex, religion, or national origin.
Plessy V. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Encouraged violence and wanted separate black communites
Little Rock Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
Public edu. must provide same amount of money for women as for men
requires public places to have handicapped accessible restrooms
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
1967 Newark Riots
Major Civil Disturbance--six days of rioting, looting, and destruction left 26 dead and hundreds injured.
African-Americans demanded a "Double V" campaign to gain victory over racial discrimination at home as well as over the Axis abroad.
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
smith v. allwright
court declared practice of excluding nonwhites from political party primary elections was unconstitutional
outlawed the closed shop, made unions liabable for jurisdictional disputes and required union leaders to take a non-communist oath.
CIO's operation aimed at unionizing southern textile workers and steelworkers.
1946, committed the government to promoting full employment and production
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
contruction industry owners whose first "Levittown" sprouted on NY's Long Island in the 1940s, builders revolutionzed the techniques of home construction
At the end of the 50s more than 50 million babies
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
Here FDR wanted Stalin to enter Asian war. He agreed to attack Japan within 3 mnths. to receive few islands and joint control over Manchuria RR.
International Monetary Fund
a United Nations agency to promote trade by increasing the exchange stability of the major currencies
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
an international bank established in 1944 to help member nations reconstruct and develop, esp. by guaranteeing loans: a specialized agency of the United Nations.
United Nations Conference
April 25, 1945. 50 nations, based upon idealism, fairer power and an attempt to prevent any wars.
Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime Hung 12
a foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United States to isolate the Soviet Union, "contain" its advances, and resist its enroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if neccesary.
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959)
The Marshall Plan
Spent 12.5 Billion over 4 years in providing aid to 16 countries.
National Security Act
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It established the Department of Defense and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and National Security Council.
Department of Defense
the federal department responsible for safeguarding national security of the UnitedStates
National Security council
a committee in the executive branch of government that advises the president on foreign and military and national security
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security Brit, France, Belgium, netherlands...
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Chinese communist leader (1893-1976) Pushed Jiang Jieshi (nationalist out of China to Taiwan.
Chinese nationalist leader that was against Mao; supported by the US; loss to Mao, so he and his followers fled to Taiwan
One thousand more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.
1947 Truman ordered security checks of govt employees to root out communists
Truman orders background checks on 3 millon fed. employees
illegal to discuss overthrowing the government
Dennis V. US
11 individuals charged for rioting and anarchy, they violated smith's act
McCarran Internal Security Bill
Vetoed by Truman, authorized the president to arrest and detain suspicious people during an "internal security emergency"
a congressional Committee that investigated Commmunist influence inside and outside the US gov. after WWII
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
Arrested in the Summer of 1950 and executed in 1953, they were convicted of conspiring to commit espionage by passing plans for the atomic bomb to the Soviet Union.
Point Four Program
plan to lend US money and technical aid to underdeveloped lands to help them help themselves
Housing Act of 1949
authorized government-constructed housing
Social Security Act of 1950
extended old-age insurance to many more beneficiaries
June 25, 1950
date N. Korea invades South Korea 38th paralell--Truman used it to expand militarism
latitudinal line that divided North and South Korea at approximately the midpoint of the peninsula
Battle of Inchon
The battle began on September 15, 1950, and ended around September 17, MacCarthur landed behind enemy lines rather then in expected Pusan.
River that forms part of Korea's northern border with China.
First Satelitte, (Russia) began Race for Space. October 4, 1957
in the race to see who had more missiles and war equipment it was the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.
National Defense and Education act
authorized $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the improvement of teaching sciences and languages
the downing of a U.S. spy plane and capture of its pilot by the Soviet Union in 1960
When the Hungarians tried to win their freedom from the Communist regime in 1956, they were crushed down by Soviet tanks. There was killing and slaughtering of the rebels going on by military forces.
When US offered financial support to President Nasser of Egypt who announced his intention to build a damn in the Suez to provide power and irrigation to Egypt, they withdrew it when Nasser spoke with the Communists on the subject causing Nassar to nationalize the Suez canal crippiling European oil supply, from the Persian Gulf. France and Britain retaliated by striking Egypt, but Eisenhower refused to support them with oil as expected.
policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country
Landrum Griffith Act
prevent bullying tactics and would make labor leaders keep accurate financial records.
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
military industrial complex
Ike's warning of a conspiracy between military and economy to create war in order to make contractors wealthy in Farewell Address
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
Gamel Abdel Nassar
The hard-nosed Arab-nationalist president of Egypt during the Suez Canal crisis in 1956.
premier of russia during space race; used many propaganda techniques to try to fool the world of Russia's intentions
led the revolution of Cuba and took control of Cuba in 1959; resented past dictators; made Cuba communist
John F. Kennedy
represented the democratic party with his "New Frontier" platform in the 1960 election. He was a major contributor to the space program and to the civil rights movement.
McCarthyism was the communist witch hunts of the 1950's.
Ngo Dinh Diem
a strong anti-communist, proclaimed South Vietnam a republic on Oct. 26, 1956 and became its first president.
The president after Truman who waged the Cold War. His secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, believed in a more aggressice stand.
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.