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79 terms

Instrument Stage 1

Liberty University School of Aeronautics Stage Check
STUDY
PLAY
What are the FAA Special Emphasis Areas
Wake Turbulence
Checklist Usage
CFIT
Collision Avoidance
LAHSO
ADM
Positive Aircraft Control
Positive Exchange of Controls
Stall/Spin Awareness
Icing
SRM
Other
When could Positive Aircraft Control be an issue on an IFR Flight?
Instrument Scans
Disorientation
Instrument Failures
Distraction
Procedure for Positive Exchange of Controls?
I, You, I
What causes an airplane to stall
Breaking the critical angle of attack
Minimum altitudes for stall/stall recoveries?
1500 AGL dual
2000 Solo
How to recover from a stall?
Pitch down
Full Power
What causes an airplane to spin?
A stall must first occur, then one wing has a higher AOA than the other.
How to recover from a spin?
Power-Idle
Aileron-Neutral
Pitch-Down
Rudder-Full Opposite
Where would spins likely occur on an IFR flight?
Climbing turns - Missed approach
Circling Approach
Exiting extended banded turn
How to scan for traffic?
10 degree sections
What is wake turbulence and how is it produced
Wingtip vertices, air spills over the tip, goes from high to low pressure
Direction of WT Vortices?
Right Wing-CC
Left Wing-C
On an IFR flight plan, is LAHSO required?
no
When would you use a printed checklist?
Preflight
Before Starting Engine
Starting
Before Taxi
Before Takeoff
After Takeoff
Cruise
Descent
Before Landing
After Landing
Engine Shutdown/Securing
What is ADM?
A systematic approach to making decisions while in an aircraft
What is CFIT?
Controlled Flight Into Terrain
How does CFIT happen?
While in IMC
Spacial Disorientation?
False sensations leading to disorientation with regards to aircraft, its location, and its bank/turns. It is disorientation because of the eyes.
Vestibular Disorientation?
False inner ear sensation
What is Hypoxia?
Not getting enough usable blood into the brain.
Types of Hypoxia?
Hypoxic-Not enough oxygen in blood
Stagnant-Not enough blood to the head
Hystotoxic-Brain cannot use oxygen
Anaemic-Oxygen not attaching to blood
Privileges of PPL?
Fly self/people not for hire
Non-profit
Search and rescue
Tow Glider (Must meet requirements)
Demonstrate Airplane to perspective buyer (200 hours)
Limitations
Private Pilots may not fly for hire
When is an Instrument Rating required?
IMC
Special VFR from Sunset to Sunrise
Class A airspace
IFR Flight Plan
Flight Experience for IFR?
Within past 6 months:
6 Instrument Approaches
6 Holding Procedures
6 Intercept/Tracking Courses in Actual, Simulated/Simulator
Classes of Medical Certificates?
1st, 2nd, 3rd
Day VFR Equipment Requirements
Altimiter
Tach
Oil Pressure
Manifold Pressure (If equipped)
Airspeed
Temp*
Oil Temp
Fuel Guage*
Landing Gear Position (If equipped)
Anticollision Lights
Magnetic Compass*
ELT
Seat Belts
Night VFR?
Fuses (Or Circuit Breakers)
Landing Light
Anticollision Lights
Position Lights
Source of Power
IFR Equipment?
Generator
Rate of Turn
Attitude
Ball
Clock*
Altimeter
Radio*
Direction Indicator
**DME (Above 24,000)
What inspections must be complied with?
Annual
100 Hour
VOR
Altimeter, Pitot/Static
ELT
Transponder
What Documents must be on board?
Airworthiness
Registration
Operating Manual
Weight and Balance data
Fuel Requirements for IFR Flight?
Fly to destination with 45 minutes remaining
(Or to dest. and to alternate with 45 minutes remaining {123 Rule for Alternates})
What is a safety pilot?
Pilot with valid medical, PPL for simulated, IFR for actual
Alcohol?
.04%, Time 8 hours, 12-24 recommended
What is IMSAFE?
Illness
Medication
Stress/Sleep
Alcohol
Fatgue
Eating
Types of VOR's
Terminal
Low
High
Ranges and Altitudes for VOR's?
Term-Ground to 12,000 25nm
Low-Ground to 18,000 40nm
High-Ground to 14,500 40nm, 14,500-FL180 100nm, FL180-FL450 130nm, FL450-FL600 100nm
Methods for testing VOR's?
Air +-6
Ground +-4
VOT+-4
Dual +-4
Records for VOR Checks?
Date, Location, Error, Signature
Advantages to VOR?
Precise, Accurate, Reliable
Disadvantages to VOR?
Line of sight, reception distance
Advantages to NDB?
Direct-to, not line of sight?
Disadvantages of NDB?
Very Unreliable, Interference especially at night, not radials
Frequencies for NDB?
140-535 kHz
C172 Engine?
Lycoming IO360 Air cooled, gravity fed 4 cylander opposed 180 horsepower engine
Horsepower?
180HP
What gives engine spark?
Spark plugs receiving power from magneto
Why 2 magnetos?
Efficiency/Safety
How does fuel system work?
Gravity Fed-Fuel Tank, Fuel Selector, Fuel Shutoff, Fuel Strainer, Reservoir, Engine
How is it vented?
Caps are not airtight, air inlet under left wing
Electrical system?
28 volt alternator, 2-24 volt batteries, 60 amp system
Electric systems considered for IFR Preflight?
Pitot heat, Turn Coordinator
Principles that make a GYRO work?
Rigidity in Space-always stays in same spot
Precession-When disturbed in motion, will take 90 degrees before change is seen
Describe the Vacuum system
1 engine driven wet vacuum. pump, regulator, standby attitude indicator, air filter, transducer
How many vacuum pumps?
1
Errors of attitude indicator?
Acceleration- Nose up
Vise Versa
Bank error after 180 turn
allowable error of Attitude during taxi check?
5 degrees
Errors of heading indicator
Relative to space, can deviate 15 per hour, mus realign with compass
Allowable Precession of HI?
4 per 15 minutes
Errors of Magnetic Compass?
Magnetic Dip-Float Asembly (UNOS)
Oscillation-erratic movement of compass because of turns, turb, etc.
Acceleration-ANDS
Variation-Difference between true and magnetic North
Deviation-Electric fields in AC
How many satellites does GPS have
24
What makes a GPS IFR Certified?
Mounted in AC, External Antenna, Certified for IFR use
RAIM?
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitering
WAAS?
Wide Area Augmentation System
Advantages of GPS
Reliable, Accurate, Direct-To Navigation
Disadvantages of GPS
Military Controlled, Info Expires
CDI Deflections?
Enroute-2 Miles
Terminal-1 Mile
App-.03 nm
CDI, What phase of flight?
ENR-30 nm from/to airport
Term-<30nm
App-2 nm from FAF
Check WAAS on G1000?
AUX page on MFD
Where is AHRS Located?
in Tailcone
Where is ADC Located?
Behind MFD
What is min altitude for autopilot?
800 AGL
Speeds?
Bottom of White-40 VS1
Bottom of Green-48 VS0
Top of White-85 (VF)
Top of Green? 129
What is VY
74, Use during Climbout
When is transition from VY to 85 necessary? Why?
1000 AGL, See Traffic Better, Better engine cooling
Max Window Open speed?
163
Why fly at Va?
Rough air/Maneuvering
Max error for altimeter?
+-75 feet
How does VSI work?
Calibrated Leak