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Terms in this set (171)
What school of thought came to prominence during the Renaissance?
What was the name of the primary meeting place in early Roman colonial cities?
What early heretical interpretation of Christianity became incredibly popular among migratory Germanic tribes, particularly the Goths, during the fall of the western Roman Empire?
What time period was the Black Death in Medieval Europe?
What is an agrarian society?
A society based upon agriculture, not nomadic.
Which nation was not a colonial power in the americas?
Which document limited the English king's power for the first time since the Magna Carta?
Petition of Right
In French society, the first estate represented what?
The samurai of Heian Japan were most similar in social ranking to the warriors of which empire?
British Knights: served land owning nobles, could rise to political prominence through battle, elevated position in society
What is the feudal hierarchy of medieval Europe? (Greatest to least)
Monarchs, nobles, knights, peasants, serfs
Who formed the highest social class of republican and early imperial Rome?
What was a Latin pagan priest called?
What famous empire lacked written language?
European art and architecture from 1450-1750 _____
Saw a renewed interest in Greco-Roman designs and themes
In 541, the bubonic plague broke out in the Byzantine Empire killing over 25 million inhabitants. Which ruling Byzantine emperor was this outbreak named after?
What is a junta?
A militant governing body typical of totalitarian states.
Which era led to the modernization of Japan?
Who was Julius caesars main opponent in the Caesar's Civil War who was defeated and assassinated in 48 BC?
Pompey the Great
Who replaced Julius Caesar after he was assassinated?
Octavian, Julius Caesar's adopted nephew, would become Caesar Augustus
The Indian Ocean trade from 600 to 1450 resulted in all of the following except
The increased wealth of Western European nations (weren't in on it yet)
The crusades resulted in what changes within Europe?
Rediscovery of written works from the classical world, along with an increase in Mediterranean trade networks.
What is a sign of a traditional economic system?
Bartering for goods
Which religious council, attended by emperor Constantine in 325 CE established Christianity as a viable and structured religion under Roman Empire, even allowing it concessions over Latin paganism?
The first council of Nicaea
The Mongolian empire
Increased the wealth of Moscow
The term 'manifest destiny' can be most accurately described as ___
The nineteenth century belief in an American destiny to push the national boundary westwards to the pacific through colonization
Which of the following rulers conducted a series of conquests throughout Italy and North Africa with the intention of restoring the Roman Empire?
Justinian and Theodora
The Byzantine empire emerged as an offspring of which other super power?
The Roman empire
What Roman Empire fell?
Fall of the western Roman Empire. Survival of the eastern Roman Empire.
Kaiser Willhelm II led the German empire during which war?
world war one
The treaty of Paris officially ended what?
The American revolution
In 1789, the Women's March in Versailles resulted in what?
The arrest of Louis XVI
Not an ape, but a hominid. Opposable thumbs
Walks upright, tends fires
Consciously thinking humans. Large brain and remarkable intelligence. Language
Old Stone Age:
Venus figures (fertility)
New Stone Age:
Iraq, Syria, and turkey region: Around 9000 BCE
Cultivation of wheat and barley
Domestication of goats, pigs, sheep, and cattle
Jericho and Catal Huyuk
Specialization of labor
Pottery, metal, and textile
Mesopotamia (dawn of man-600 BCE)
Constructed complex societies
Indo European (dom-600 BCE)
Horses, Hittites, chariots, and iron metallurgy
Africa (dom-600 BCE)
India (dom-600 BCE)
Harrapa and Mohenjo Daro
Aryans (noble people) arrive in India
The Vedas, the rig Veda, and Vedic Age
Caste and Varna: Subcaste and Sati
Lawbook of Manu
Merging Aryan and Dravidian societies created Indian society unique religious belief.
East Asia (dom-600 BCE)
Effective flood control of yellow river
Shang dynasty: bronze metallurgy, chariots
Walled city capital
Mandate of Heaven
Veneration of Ancestors
Mesoamerica (dom-600 BCE)
Olmecs: the rubber people
Systematically destroyed their ceremonial centers
Decline and fall is perplexing
Cultivators, artisans merchants
Tikal most important Mayan center in 4th to 9th centuries
Math, astronomy, writing.
Empires of Persia (600 BCE-600 CE)
Medes and Persian people closely related
Military power: warriors with equestrian and archery skills
Cyrus the Great went from regional king to ruler of empire
Darius extended empire into India
Centralized gov in Persepolis
Alexander of Macedon (the Great
Empires of Persia list and dates (600 BCE-600 CE)
Seleucid 323-83 BCE
Parthian 247 BCE-224 CE
Sasanid 224-651 CE
Unification of China (600 BCE-600 CE)
Junzi: superior individuals
Ren: attitude of kindness
Xiao: Filial piety
Daoism "the way of nature"
Doctrine of Wuwei: disengagement from the material world and competition
Brought end to period of warring states (403-221 BCE)
Created administrative regions
Built precursor to Great Wall
Burning books of philosophy, history, or literature
Revolts began after Qin Shihuangdi death, Qin dynasty dissolved
Liu Bang restores China after Qin dissolves 206 BCE
centralized imperial government
Hounded by Xiongnu (nomads up north)
Han Wudi ruled 54 years, two goals:
1. Imperial central gov
Iron metallurgy, silk, paper
Land holdings end up in hands of wealthy
Wang Mang "socialist emperor" tries to redistribute land but is assassinated
Yellow Turban Uprising protested land distribution
Collapse of Han as warring factions within imperial family.
India (600 BCE- 600 CE)
Trade in Indian basin
Follow monsoon patterns
Jati and Guilds
Early Buddhism (Ashoka influence)
(Displaces Buddhism) Hinduism: Bhagavad Gita
Indian Empires lists and dates (600 BCE- 600 CE)
Mauryan Empire started by Chandragupta Maurya foundation for a unified central Indian gov
Ashoka Maurya (268-232 BCE)
Better governor than conqueror
Established capital city
Provided comfort for travelers with wells, shade trees and inns
Roads, irrigation systems, and encouraged trade
Decline of empire at his death
Smaller than Mauryan empire but also stable and prosperous
Science and math
The Greeks (600 BCE- 600 CE)
No river culture
Athens vs Sparta
The Delian Leasgue = poleis created an alliance to keep Persians out of Greece
Phillip of Macedon
Alexander of Macedon
The Romans (600 BCE- 600 CE)
Roman republic limited
Plebeians and Patricians (peasants vs aristocrats)
Pax Romana (Roman peace)
Twelve Tables (earliest code of Roman law)
Mediterranean Sea, Roman trade
Roman Empire falls in 476 CE as Germanic tribes settle among Roman frontier
When was Muhammad born?
Five pillars of Islam
1. Acknowledge one god and Muhammad as his prophet
2. Pray facing Mecca
5. Pilgrimage to mecca
After Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr takes leadership as caliph (deputy
Ali son in law should have ruled
The Ummayads 661-750
Rule Dar al Islam as conquerors
More cosmopolitan than Ummayads
Did not conquer large areas
High point under Harun al- Rashid
Fall to Suljuk Turks
Spread of crops and industry
Chinese Paper manufacture
Islam absorbs cultural ideas from Greece, India, and Persia
India:math, Arabic numerals (really Indian)
Greece: philosophy and Classical Greek studies
Sui Dynasty (600-1450 CE)
Yang Jian takes power, establishes Sui dynasty in 589 CE
Grand canal completed by Sui Yangdi (second emperor)
Tang Dynasty (600-1450 CE)
After Sui Yangdi's assassination, a rebel named Chang'an claims himself emperor and established the Tang Dynasty 618-907
Tang Taizong (second ruler) ruthless to get to power
Once in leadership he provided stable government and promoted:
Communication and transportation networks
Distribution of land in equal-field system
Bureaucracy based upon merit
Nomadic Turks were invited to extinguish rebels, but ultimately sacked Chinese cities
After Tang fell, warlords ruled china until Song Dynasty 960-1279
Valued civil administration, education, and the arts. Not military service
Song Taizu first Song emperor
Problems that weakened Song:
Financial/bureaucrats were highly paid for loyalty
Military/scholar-bureaucrats assigned to lead armies
Song Dynasty economics
Fast ripening rice
New agricultural tech (iron plow, harnesses, irrigation)
Specialty merchants of porcelain, silk, etc.
Only woman in Chinese history to rule as emperor and claim imperial title
Song Dynasty industrial advancements
Buddhism in China
Attracts Chinese because of high standards of morality and sophistication
Monasteries in banking, lending and education for communities
Confucianists strongly opposed Buddhism
Combined Buddhism and Confucianism for Neo-Confucianism
Japan (600-1450 CE)
Heian Japan 794-1185
Supreme ruler, prior emperor was figurehead
Warriors served lords in Japan, similar to knights in Europe
India (600-1450 CE)
After Gupta fell to white Huns, India split in two
Temporary unification of northern India
Harsha, a buddhist, welcomed other faiths in his kingdom
Built hospitals and provided medical recourses for his people
Pious, liberal, scholarly
Distributed wealth to subjects
Sultanate of Delhi- Islam
Hindu kingdoms in Southern India
The Chola 850-1267
Did not have tightly structured gov/ let local leaders do their thing as long as they paid taxes
Kingdom of Vijayanager
Owes establishment to Sultanate of Delhi
Sultans sent exploratory groups into region to establish authority.
Brothers, Harihara and Bukka establish their own independent empire
Renounce Islam and proclaim themselves Hindu
1565 fell to Muslims
Dhows and Junks
Large stable ships
Shows could carry 100 tons of cargo
Subcastes became important as merchant class got richer and more powerful
Mixing the political and religious authority
Justinian and Theodora
Justinian's code- Codification of Roman law
The theme system
Military service rewarded with land
Charles Martel (Charles the hammer)
Drove Muslims back from France at battle of tours
Established the Carolinian empire
His grandson is Charlemagne. He ruled from 768-814 and established centralized imperial rule. In 800 Charlemagne becomes emperor
Envoys of the ruler. Used by Charlemagne to keep power
Economy of Europe (600-1450 CE)
Peasants flourish under theme system
Trade (location, location, location)
Development of heavy plows benefits all of Northern Europe
Trade-maritime using Mediterranean and trade Muslims in spain
St. Basil and Benedict
Set up monasteries, provide aid to communities as well as education
Religious Rivalry 1054
Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic mutually excommunicate each other in the great schism
This is the mongol Practice of resettling skilled artisans into new lands
Khans and Ilkhans of the Mongol empire
Established diplomatic relations by means of establishing embassies
How did the mongo, empire fall?
Economic struggles and the plague
Establishes an empire in Central Asia, his role model is chinggis khan. After death empire falls apart
Bantu political system
Kinship groups and clans
Important urban center on Niger River. Huge commercial interest and trade for west Africa inspiration for city of Timbuktu
Kingdom of Kongo
Location in Congo Basin
King and lesser officials
Used cowries, shells, as royal currency
Effective community from 14th century-17th century until Portugal got it
Controlled gold trade
Sundiata, the lion prince (1230-1255)
Timbuktu, very wealthy
Overtakes Mali, largest of the three major west African kingdoms
Islamic East African Swahili city-states
Swahili means "coasters"
Amazing location for trade
Social classes of complex societies
Ruling elite, military, nobles, administrators, religious leaders, merchants, artisans, commoners, peasants, and slaves
Smaller kin based communities
Male head of families jointly governed
Islam for women in sub Saharan africa
Islam did not change the status of women in subsaharan Africa
The Zanj Revolt
Zanj were black slaves from the Swahili coast
Ali bin Muhammad
Rebel slave in Zanj revolt, led 15,000 slaves . Took over the city of Basra and stayed there for ten years until the Abbasids retook the city.
Religion in African societies
Many African societies believed in one god with lesser deities and spirits. Diviners were individuals who were able to mediate between physical and spiritual world
Christianity in African Societies
Arrived in North Africa, took hole do Axum (Ethiopia)
The three estates
Those who pray, those who fight, and those who work.
Gender relations in Europe third period
Urban woman had more choices than rural women
Worked alongside husbands
Most guilds admitted women
St Thomas Aquinas
Dominicans and Franciscans
Religious orders of mendicants (beggars) who led a simple life and owned nothing.
People from northern Italy and southern France. Disliked Catholics and promoted a simple and modest life.
Bogomils and cathars
Viewed the world as cosmic struggle between good and evil and revived the ancient Manichaeans outlook
Reclaim the Holy Lamd from Muslims
First crusade pope urban send Christian knights with military expeditions
Jerusalem is claimed from Muslims in 1099
Saladin retakes Jerusalem in 1187
Crusaders destroyed Constantinople over greed. This was the seat of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Mesoamerica and South America (period three)
After collapse of Teotihuacan regional and agricultural communities developed
Toltecs (later the Mexica) emerged and established unified central rule. They established community along the Tula river.
Established city of Tula
Fire may have destroyed city.
Also known as Aztecs, move from place to place because neighbors could not tolerate them. Eventually given rattlesnake infested desert. They ate the snakes and survived to eventually take over the whole thing.
City of Tenochitlan, built on lake
Chinampas-floating gardens, rich soil provides excellent productivity
Aztec empire very powerful and feared. Conquered people payed tribute and disliked their conquerors.
Aztec social structure
Warriors could rise up social ladder
Women were valued as the bearing of life. To die in childbirth was most honorable. To be a mother of a warrior was also an honor.
After warrior class, being a priest was also honored.
Religion in Aztec
"Earthshaker" leader of Inca
Mnemonic aid to keep track of accounts
center of administration, "navel of the universe"
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Mongols Yuan Dynasty falls apart during the bubonic plague.
Emperor Hongwu takes over and established the king dynasty
Dumps mongol philosophy and reinstates Confucianism
Ming leaders were tough, eunuchs for servants
Ming will fall to the Manchus and the Qing dynasty will be established
Sponsored by Ming
Chinese Muslim who made expedition between 1405-1433
Explorer-navigator who sails across the Indian Ocean to establish commercial interests.
Middle Ages and Renaissance
Middle Ages 1066-1450
Motives for exploration
1. Land for cash crops and resources
2. Trade routes
3. Expand Christianity
How did seafaring improve in 1450-1750?
Astrolabe, large square sails, lateen triangle square, knowledge of crosswinds, rudders
Volto do mar
Follow currents, don't take direct route
Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal
Set up school for training sailors, mapmakers, and shipbuilders
First to circumnavigate the world
European (especially French) obsession 1450-1750
Finding the Northwest Passage
Dutch and English have advantage over Portugal
Powerful and faster ships, more economic resources
Population boost with balanced diet, population decrease with death of native population
"Here I stand. I can do no other"
High funds to repair St. Peter's
Bible should be written in the vernacular
End priestly and pope authority
Council of Trent 1545-1563
Assembled bishops, cardinals drawing on the philosophical teachings of St.Thomas Aquinas
Acknowledged abuses of Catholic Church. Strict moral code and proper seminary training for priests
Society of Jesus
A rigorous academic and philosophical training for priests which included language, science, and literature. They served as counselors for kings and had huge influence on missionary efforts
1. King James I
2. 110,000 innocent went to trial
3. Church courts tried them, not usually lethal, but many excommunications
4. Most witches were women except in Finland,
5. Most were on the outskirts of society
Thirty Years War
Holy Roman emperor forced Bohemians to return to Roman Catholicism
Some joined for religious reasons some joined for political
Most destructive war in Europe until the 20th century
After 1438 the Hapsburg of Austria controlled the Holy Roman Empire. Tried to centralize power and government but couldn't.
Louis XI and Francis I of France
Maintained a powerful standing army and like all monarchs wanted to enhance treasury
Created taxes on sales and households
King Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Spain did the same
Why did England not follow France and raise taxes on sales and households?
They feared rebellions. Instead they increased revenues by raising fines and fees.
Inquisition of Spain 1478
Religious justification to advance state ends. Jews or Muslims and heretics were targets.
English Civil War 1642-1649
English king, Charles I is beheaded by rebel leader Oliver Cromwell. He becomes leader of England but his philosophy is too much, and he is ousted.
Charles II retakes the throne in 1660
James II follows him up, but he liked the Catholic Church so parliament didn't want him
James II had a daughter, Mary, who married William of Orange.
They were invited to rule together
This gentle change of power is known as the GLORIOUS REVOLUTION
Divine right in France
The Sun King Louis XIV (1643-1715)
Architect of French absolutism
Palace of Versailles
Large standing army
Enlarge French boundaries
Use dependable middle class officials
Peter I (the great)
Ruthless giant who tried to bring Russia into the 17th century
1. Reform army
2. Western style attire
3. Order aristocrats to study math and cannon accuracy
4. Tax and improve administration
5. No beards
6. St. Petersburg was as close west as he could get
Peace of Westphalia
To avoid the destruction that happened in the 30s year war
Setting foundation for independent competing European states
Almost all European states included
Regarding each other as sovereign and equal
Recognized rights over domestic affairs
States act in own affairs
Did not bring end to wars
John Locke 1632-1704
Attacked divine right, sovereignty resides in the people
Where people shared thoughts of the enlightenment
Epitomized the philosophy of enlightenment
Championed individual freedom
Believe that deity set the universe in order and established natural laws, but takes no personal interest in affairs of the earth
Hernan Cortez and the Aztecs
1519 about 450 soldiers
Defeated Motecuzoma II in 1520
Spanish weapons alone could not conquer but neighbors of aztecs were willing to back up Cortes as they hated the Aztecs
Disease, a powerful ally for the Spanish
1530 with 180 soldiers to Peru
Atahualpa held up his end of the bargain but the Spanish did not
Gold and greed
Mining in Spanish Empire
Large deposits of silver
Potosi need cheap labor
Mita system 1/7 male population for mines
Portuguese sugar plantations
Engenho means engine refers to the sugar mill
Not fun for African slaves
Sunni Ali reigned over a prosperous and commercial kingdom.
Dominated west Africa until 1591, when Europeans attacked.
Swahili city states
Fell under domination of Portuguese
Kingdom of Kongo
Central African kingdom
Kongo kings converted to catholic faith
Kingdom of Ndongo (Angola)
Queen Nzinga reigned 1623-1663
Mobilized and fought Portuguese, even learned the language
Dona Beatriz 1704
Jesus was black heaven was for Africans
The Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Founded by Hongwu
Made use of mandarin imperial officers who travelled the country to observe governmental policies
Protect from invasion
Restored civil service
Improved to build Great Wall
Chinese peasants began to revolt and the Manchus from the north began to invade.
The Qing Dynasty 1644-1911
Qing means pure
Manchu had a powerful and well organized military which aided in the takeover of Beijing
Kangxi (took over)
Qianlong (sophisticated and scholarly, height of the empire)
Son of heaven
The emperors of Ming and Qing were almost deities to people of their kingdom. Lived in forbidden city, all of life orchestrated.
No one is higher than emperor
Ran the government in Qing and Ming dynasties. Well educated classes of society
Ming and Qing promoted
Social stability and stable government over technological innovations
Shogun means military governor
Tokugawa was a military governor (reigned 1600-1616)
Established shogunate to avoid civil war in Japan
The daimyo (powerful territorial lords) ruled most of Japan
The shogun was able to take control including the daimyo
Japan closed itself off from the rest of the world. Trade carefully controlled with only a few Asian countries.
Neo-Confucianism in Japan
Promoted by shogunate
Japanese believe themselves superior to all others
Mass murder of Christian missionaries
Tokugawa policies kept Christianity out of Japan
The ottoman required Christian lands in the Balkans to send sons to the sultan for training. Military training, Turkish language, conversion classes for Islam. Soon became elite force known as the Janissaries
Shah Ismail established
Twelve infallible imams after Muhammad
Twelfth imam went into hiding and would return to take power to kee the Islamic movement going
Red hats and twelve pleats
Quizilbash (red heads)
Babur the tiger
Turk claiming to be a descendent of Chinggis khan and Tamerlane
Tried to establish authority in Central Asia
Took India and Afghanistan
Named it the Mughal Empire
The great leader of the Mughal reigned 1556-1605
Created centralized government
Absorbed Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar
Religious tolerance very educated created syncretic religion called "divine faith"
Mughal Empire becomes largest under this leader
Devout Muslim, no tolerance for Hindus
Similarities between Mughal, Ottoman, Safavid
1. All had bureaucracy from the nomadic steppe tradition
2. Sought harmony by trying to embrace other religious groups
3. Tried to provide public assistance
4. Interested in art and literature
Period four big picture
Interaction between people and their environment as well as cultural exchanges.
Expansion and creation of empires
This is the perils of global economic development
Obsession over faster better and easier trade routes
Americas are added into the mix with Colombian exchange
New advances in technology- gunpowder, maritime engineering
Population changes (growth in Europe because of Colombian exchange, diminish in indigenous peoples, diminished African population and gender imbalance from slave trade)
New social structures in the americas
Europe renaissance, enlightenment and reformation
American class distinctions
Peninsulares- European born
Creoles or criollos- Europeans born in new world
Mestizo- half European half native Indian
Mulatto- half European half black
Zambo- half black half indian
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